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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Emotional, Personality and Social Development

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York University
PSYC 2110
Maxine Wintre

November 25th – Class Note 1 Emotional, Personality and Social Development Temperament Thomas & Chess (1977) - Identified 9 temperamental dimensions o Activity level o Rhymicity o Distractability o Approach withdrawal o Adaptability o Attention span and persistence o Intensity of reaction o The threshold of responsiveness (how early and how much of stimulus) o Quality of the mood - 2 tests to get idea of child’s functioning related to temperament - Group means = how the group moves in diff temperament (talking about emotional development) - Individual differences = one child is different from another, (it is personality differences) - Found certain characteristics cluster together and yield 3 types of children - (1) easy kids o 40% - establish quick routines, cheerful, adapt to new situations easily o Temperament also influences parents’ reaction - (2) difficult kids o 10% - irregular daily routines, slow to accept new experiences, react negatively and with great intensity - (3) slow-to-warm-up kids o 15% - relatively inactive, show mild/low reactions to environmental stimuli, negative in mood, adjust slowly to new experiences - 35% kids don’t fit any of these categories (show unique lens of temperament) - Temperamental stability (maintain over time) = is low to moderate (some, but not exceptionally high, not fixed) Emotion Regulation - Research on emotions is few. Piaget’s emphasis on cognition which limit behavioural approach - Hasn’t been individual work on emotion in a way that is acceptable to contemporary psychologists - 3 characteristics of emotions that has begun to be looked at, no ONE person done all 3 of them: (1) Emotion regulation - How people manage their emotions - Allow themselves to be consumed by an emotion, or whether they can put things on hold and attend to the task at hand and then return to the problem that was causing the emotional problem - Acquired with time, age, experience = Depending on what traumas or experience one encounters in life, it will influence how person will learn to cope - Coping = Learn more effective ways to regulate our emotions (2) Display Rules - how one communicates their emotional feelings to others - Different in cultures (valuing which temperament more. Ex: ways to mourn someone’s death) - it depends what a society considers as normative - display rules are learned by middle childhood (10-11) are having temper tantrums, will use other ways to express them (parents can scaffold emotion displays, social learning theory would be appropriate to how to November 25th – Class Note 2 Emotional, Personality and Social Development express their feelings – modeled for them) (3) Emotion Cognition - Knowing which response is appropriate - # responses increase with age and become more complex Susan Harter - Age 12, children can understand experiencing opposite emotions to a similar situation - How can child love their parents but on the other hand be terrified of them (ex: abused children) - Interviewed kids: by age 12, kids can imagine a situation in which they would experience these 2 opposite emotions simultaneously - This methodology was highly dependent on language = for kids to come up with the situation - Didn’t consider the fact that there are 2+ emotions - Didn’t consider emotions can vary in intensity (a bit sad / very scared / happy at the same time) Winter & Vallence - Weren’t impressed by Harter’s study, see if in fact there are more involved in emotion cognition - Investigated accuracy of emotion (respond in a way that makes sense), handle multiple emotions to one situation, vary the intensity of an emotion and/or multiple emotion, +ve/-ve emotions to the same situation - Investigated intensity valence and multiple motions - On wooden frame, have 5 faces on the edge and a wire across each face, with a bead on it. At the top, had thermometer o Sad o Fearful o Happy o Angry o Loving - Give them a situation and ask them how they would feel. Made it concrete, less reliable on language, see how they would respond - Ex: you see a friend play with his dog (could feel happy, scared, loving) – asked for juxtaposition - Found children at young age can do this (like a Piagetian task, take account of 2+ dimensions) here: find right emotion, intensity, valence - Age 4.5 kids can use multiple emotion, same intensity, same valence - Age 6 kids can use multiple emotions, different intensity, same valence (you get a birthday present that’s not what you wanted, can say sad/angry) - Age 8 can use multiple emotions, different intensity and different valence (you find yourself home alone, ask the kid how he/she feels, he says scared/angry/but happy) - Can use multiple emotions, diff intensity/valence = don’t always mean they always use it, not always appropriate. Use their maximum score to indicate their capability to use it Freud 1856-1939 Historical Overview - Presented the 1 comprehensive personality theory - 17 century: human reason (rationalism) is replacing superstition (age of Enlightment) - Freud: everything has a cause and believe in rationalism - Lived most his life in Vienna, medical student at age 17, but he’s Jewish so he wont be able to be a professor, he went into practice November 25th – Class Note 3 Emotional, Personality and Social Development - Began his career using hypnosis to treat hysteria (baubbly symptoms and abnormal sensations, no physiological corresponding cause) – came up with psychoanalytic theory - Basic tendency of living = maximum in pleasure while minimizing punishment/guilt - “pleasure principle” - 3 major systems that comprised the structure of personality - Knew no physiological signs for these structures – they are psychological processes that obey different systems - Each system has its own functions, properties/components - The 3 interact and it’s hard to distangle their effectiveness together - Behaviour is a product between the interaction of these 3 systems – work together as a team under the administrative system of the EGO The Structure of the Personality 1. Id - Biological component of the system, the go system (do it now!) - Original system, there from the start - Consists everything that is psychological that is inherited present at birth, including the instincts - Congenital, inherited, present at birth, includes the instincts - Reservoir of psychic energy – gets all the energy from the food we eat, some energy will be designated for motor skills, other activities, some will be PSYCHIC ENERGY (goes immediately to the Id) - Furnish all powers for all other components, ego/superego True Psychic Reality - Represents the inner world of subjective experience - However you see/feel something, that’s the way it is, regardless of objective reality - Only credits the subjective reality, how one thinks Pleasure Principle - Cant tolerate increases of energy – if it has too much, it becomes the uncomfortable state of attention - Id will try to discharge the energy IMMEDIATELY - This tension reduction is pleasurable – Id is operating by the pleasure principle - Reducing tension feels pleasurable to reduce the increases of energy/tension Reflex Actions - Sneezing, blinking, coughing (automatic reactions) – reduces tensions automatically Primary Process - Id will attempt to discharge tension by forming an image (mental) of an object that will remove the tension - If person is very hungry, the Id will construct a mental image of food that alleviate the tension “wish fulfillment” - In the extreme, these images will become hallucinations in psychotic patients - Having these mental images wont solve itself the problem, so it cannot reduce the tension Secondary Process - ego is involved (since mental images wont solve the problem itself) 2. Ego - Psychological component of the system - Id comes into existence, because of the need or the organism November 25th – Class Note 4 Emotional, Personality and Social Development Objective World of Reality - The need to transact the subjectivity with the objective of the world - Individual must learn to differentiate the mental image and the actual perceptual of the object as it exists in the real world - Necessary to locate the object in the environment Reality Principle - Aim = prevent the discharge of tension until an appropriate object has been found in the real world - Because it is the real object that will satisfy the need - Ego operates by the means of secondary process Secondary Process - Realistic thinking - Ego will formulate a plan to satisfy the needs, then ego will test the plan. Infant will test the plan physically but as we get older, we can test the plan mentally/cognitively and see whether the plan will work (reality testing) - Ex: feel hungry, want to get steak at the Keg, but no money, then formulate another plan that works - In order to perform this reailty testing, need control cognitive attributes (memory) - Ego has control over these intellectual properties Execute of personality - Control the gateway of actions, select the features of the environment to which he will respond, decide which instincts will be satisfy and in what order - Conflicting demands = Id and Superego, external world of reality (objective world) o Put the ego in great deal of constrain 3. Superego - Social component of the system – last system, an internal representation of the traditional values and ideals of the society as interpreted to the child by the parents - Represents the moral arm of the personality, represents the ideal rather than the real - Strive for perfection - Try to inhibit the impulsive Id, will try to persuade the ego to substitute moral goals for realistic goals Conscience - System that incorporates that the parents say are improper and punish - Later on, will feel guilt without the instruction of parent Ego Ideal - Parents will reward or will say it’s proper, will eventually wont need the parents’ rewards and still do that for yourself - Make ourselves feel proud Dynamics of the Personality - How the energy is distributed / shared among the 3 system - There are competitions for the psychic energy - If 1 system gains
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