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Lecture 4

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PSYC 2110
Jean Varghese

Phys growth: • Body fat Inc gradually • Muscle development -- longer and thicker st • Fontanels (soft spots) disappear during 1 2 years Nutrition: Breast feeding: vitamins, easier transition to solids, inc immune system Formula: iron-containing formula, containing vitamins and minerals Brain development: 1) Growth of neurons 2) Inc in synapses 3) Growth and multiplication of glial cells Glial cells - form myelin and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain Types of brain plasticity: 1. Modifiability: cells can be modified 2. Compensation - cells can compensate for defects in other cells Typers of brain growth: 1. Experience-expectant processes: brain creates circuits based on human 2. Experience-dependent processes: additional growth & refinement of brain due to learning Maltreatment & the brain: • Prolonged stress – over-produced cortisol • Amygdala: tende Shaken baby syndrome: form of child abuse – brain & blood vessels damaged; swelling causes lack of blood and oxygen a) Gross motor skills: b) Fine Motor skills: Malnutrition effects grotth, associated with lower levels of intelligence Sleep imp b/c it secretes growth hormone Brain development: at 5 yrs – 90% of brain is developed Frontal lobe: area of brain that develops most during early childhood, responsible for planning and solving problems Hippocampus develops: Inc gains in memory Corpus collosum inc: As child NS develops, their motor skills increase - they acquire better motor skills by teaching and observing others Puberty – ind becomes capable of sexual reproduction Biochemical basis of puberty: brain tells endocrine glands to inc prod of hormones Hypothalamus: in fore-brain, releases gonatodropin releasing hormone (GnRH) Anterior pituitary – FSH + LH Gonads – sex glands, Female – ovaries, secrete estrogen Adrenal glands: above kidneys, can prod
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