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Lecture 3

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York University
PSYC 2110
Jean Varghese

Lecture 3 recording: • For disorders – you are not gonna to ask to list them and symptoms, they will be in a Multiple choice section!! • Know heading in textbook and not • KNOW HEADINGS • Pay attention We all started out as single cell organisms – the single cell contains all of genetic info needed for body to develop!! • Proteins are workers of the body • Genes are short segments of DNA • Scientists have been able to ID most genes in human genome!! • Genetic Foundations • Nucleus of each cell contains chromosomes • Chromosomes are rod-like structure made up of DNA • Genes are short segment of DNA DNA • DNA are double stranded molecules • DNAcan replicate itself – Mitosis!!! • Genes effect everything – but they don’t determine anything!! Genotypes and Phenotypes • Genotype = refers to the genetic material of the individual • Phenotype = refers to the apparent, observable, measurable characteristics of the individual. Meiosis: (Sexual Reproduction) Mitosis: • Cell division resulting cell is identical • Form of cell division in which to the parent cell Chromosomes split, • duplication and breaking part • Each member has 23 chromosomes • Resulting cell is NOT identical to parent cell • Crossing over – exchange of genetic material b/w chromosomes –this results in variation! • Crossing over and extra division when compared to mitosis!! Some genes are universal, Alleles: different forms of gene that occupy a particular LOCUS on the chromosome!! e.g. alleles for eye color Dominant/Recessive inheritance: Dominant: either one or two dominant allele(s) result in expression e.g Vision Tongue curling -- dominant trait!! Recessive: has to be two recessive allele result in expression. Polygenetic inheritance: phenotype is influenced by many gens (i.e. height) Regulation genes: turn other genes on or off!! • i.e development of jaw – the regulator gene turns of sooner in chimpanzees METHODS OF STUDYING HEREDITARY INFLUENCES Selective breeding: rats make their way through maze to get a reward, if you mate braze bright with other maze bright -- the variation deepens Behaviour genetisisits use twin or adoption study: Identical twins: comes from same single cell, same genetic info Fraternal twins: 50%, like any other type of siblings Adoption studies: looks at contributions of environment VS genetics!! Canalization: some traits have restrictions that follow genetic trait i.e. all children speak and walk around 1 year of age!! * body has a certain plan for certain traits, so it is very difficult for environment to change it Response to stress and number of stress events • the number of stressful events depends on environment Mutations: could be spontaneous or due to environment • could be beneficial or harmful • mutations is inherited ONLY if it is present within the sex cells!! Founder effect: small group of people from a larger population start a new population of their own • Usher syndrome in Louisiana!!! -- children are born blind!! • In small population, it is more likely to get recessive alleles Reaction range: variability of expression is influenced by environmental factors • E.g: Intellectual problems Gene-environment correlation: impact of genotype on environment 1. Passive Gene-environment correlation: parents provide the genes also provide env • Its passive because the children are not doing anything to choose the env, the parents 2. Evocative Gene-env: genotype elicits particular response • Something that baby is doing is eliciting a response 3. Active-gene env: the child selects contexts that they find rewarding, child actively seek to certain environments that will strengthen their traits • For older children Mother Father 2 million Ova in ovaries Sperm produced in testicles Ovum is released every 28 days 2 million per day 46- meiosis – 23 chromosomes Each ind sperm cell has 23 chr Swept along Fallopian tubes Sperm from father penetrates ovum form mom – zygote!! Zona Palucida: gelatinous layer • As soon as 1 sperm cell penetrates – no other sperm can get inside!! • Menstration: Ovum is expelled and sperm is absorbed by WBC X chromosome is larger then Y, Y chromosome swims faster Chareotype: a photograph of all the chromosomes in a cell!! Multiple births: 1. Monozygotic twins (identical): single ovum splits (100% identical) 2. Dizygotic twins (Fraternal twins): ovary releases two ova • Same genetic relationship as any other sibling (50% • It could happen near the end of women’s reproductive cycle Infertility: inability to conceive after 12-18 months of trying Why infertility happens?: 1. egg quality decreases over time 2. inflammation or scarring due to infections 1. Artificial insemination: inserting sperm into uterus 2. In vitro fertilization: egg fertilized with sperm outside and transferred to Uterus 3. Gamete intrafallopian transfer: Egg & sperm combine and placed unfertilized into fallopian tube 4. Zygote intrafallopian transfer: egg fertilized with sperm and zygote transfer 5. Introcytoplasmic sperm injection: single sperm is injected into the egg Stages of Prenatal development: 1. Germinal 2. Embryonic 3. Fetal Germinal stage (0-2 weeks): • When egg is entering fallopian tube and implants uterus • At 8 cell mark – there’s differentiation • Blastocyst: ball of cells • Differention happens: blastocyst divides into two things • 1. Embryonic disk: developing organism • 2. Trop
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