Nov 28 lecture
Emotional development in childhood has huge consequences on future development!!!
For test –do not know motivation emotion!!
2 main categories of emotions:
• Happy, surprise, fear – universal -- appear in 1 year of life
• Newborns – interests, distress, 2-7 months -- anger, surprise fear
2. Complex emotions
--shame, envy, pride, guilt
• Cultural specific
• Build out of primary emotions -- end of 2 year and after!!
• You need to develop concept of self and values of society to show this emotion!!
Sense of Self: The rouge test –only in 2 year of life (around 18 months) babies show self-
1. Allow baby to look at monitor
2. Take away mirror, put a spot of rouge on child’s nose
3. Return the child to the mirror
4. By 18 months, child notices the red dot and the link between itself and image in the
mirror-- at first they don’t know who is in the mirror
Smiling and Laughter:
1. Newborns reflex smile
2. 3-8 weeks – social smile
3. 3 months -- more frequent smiles at familiar faces 4. 4 months - laughter
1. 3-4 months -- babies smile less at unfamiliar faces
2. 6 months -- intense stare and distress when they see strangers
3. 8-10 months – fear of strangers
4. 14 to 18 months -- separation anxiety!!
Separation anxiety and fear of strangers are linked to attachment!!
Development of complex emotions:
• Signs of empathy around 2 years –EXP: they had mothers and strangers undergoing
painful situations --- infants showed more empathy towards mothers!!!!
• 3-4 years—kids predict what emotions go with diff situations
• Pride and shade are related to understanding of a task (difficult/easy?) guilt results
from gradual understanding of personal responsibility!!
• **** Kids take into consideration the goal, intention of a person and characteristics of a
• Children seek emotional information about uncertain information, initially present b/w
7-10 months and increases with age!!!
• E.g: in a visual cliff-- depending on mothers expression – it depends whether she will
cross or not
• E.g: given new toy --
• Children often look at moms face to evaluate unfamiliar situation!!!!
Learning to regulative emotions: Emotional display rules: kids learn about the rules on how to appropriately express their
emotions -- culturally specific,
Girls show more positive RXNS in a negative situation!!! Girls are much better at faking their
Regulating emotions is one of the biggest tasks during kids development ---- STOP NOWAND
PLAN PROGRAM – kids who took this program were less likely to be in prison!!!
• How adults regulate infants emotions? -
E.g: Marshmallow Test -- delay gratification, kids can get 1 marshmallow now, or wait and
get more later --- this test has a high predictive value – it was related to their performance in
high school -- kids either looked away or thought about something else
At older age, people tend to look back instead of living in the present -- that’s why people are
more depressed when they are in their 40’s
People with kids find their life more meaningful -- but they are more likely to be more stressed
in the present!!
Development of attachment:
1. Attachment -- strong emotional bond between infant and caregiver developing b/w 7-9
Associated phase-- infants are equally excited Birth-6 weeks
to see toys or people
Indiscriminate attachment – infants react 6 weeks – 6/7 months
differently to people and objects, they do not
give specific attachment to care-givers
SPECIFIC attachment 7-9 months
Attachment has been studied a lot -- Research with primates -- after chimps were born –they were raised in isolation or 1/2year -
they had no social contact with family members -- after they put them into contact with other
chimps – they were withdrawn--- this negative behaviors remained throughout life!!!
Isolation in early life = life long consequence
EX 2: Kids raised in foster houses in Romania – after USSR fell -- the adopted kids behavior
remained different throughout their life!!!--- kids could not discriminate b/w their adopted
parents and other adults!!!
4 theories of attchemnt
1. Psychoanalytic theory -- infants get attached to their mothers b/c mothers provide oral
2. Learning theory-- related to feeding, infants get attached to their mothers because
mothers become secondary reinforcers (Mothers provide food)
3. Cognitive developmental theory—in order for infants to have attachment –you need to
have a certain level of cognitive development -- related to object permanence -- you
must understand that mom is always present, even if you cant see her!
4. Ethological theory: most famous now, all of the behaviors infants have are in place to
help infants interact with their parents!!!!
• This coincides with research on imprinting – aform of learning where various species
follow a moving object (it can be a person or a ball, etc)—in animals this behavior
happens for a certain period of time
• This imprinting attachment is irreversible!!!
1. Strange Situation test
Unusual way of testing kids -- there are 8 steps and each of them are 3 minutes long,
exp introduces the baby and parent to playroom, parent is supposed to watch the baby—
they want to see if baby stays close to mother -- stranger then enters the room -- then
the parent leaves – stranger then offers comfort -- mom return – then she leaves HOW WIL L BABY REACT WHEN MOM RETURNS AND LEAVES!!
1. Secure base: infants use caregiver as a base from which to explore environment
and to which return to emotional support
2. Attachment Q-set
• Strange situation test -- you can only use it e