December 5 Lecture
• Very recently we started to value emotional value of parenting – economic value of child
decreases b/c kids can no longer walk!!
• Lots of investment and little return!!
• Astudy on working moms: working moms enjoyed less taking care of kids compared to
• Recent study: overall people who have kids are happier, single parent –less satisfied,
young parent - also less satisfie!!!
Family as a system:
• Researchers found: if you train mice to show fear response, when they looked at DNA--
they had seen gene changes—over time kids and grandkids became more scared of that
smell- the gene for fear is passed from parent to offspring!!
Family as developing system:
• More single adults, people tend to marry at older age, there’s more divorces
• PETER PAN Syndrome: when an adult refuses to be an adult!!!
1. Acceptance/Responsiveness : how much affection parents give to their kids,
** Rejecting/Unresponsive ------------------ Warm/responsive!!!
2. Demandingness/Control (behavioral VS psychological): how much supervision
*** Permissive/undemanding ---------- restrictive/demanding
If parents do not exercise control over their kids= leads to deficiencies in self control!!
The purpose of this is to help children develop!!! Consequences of secure attachment: proper cognitive development (more explorotary, better
phys development, more problem solving)
2 types of control -- Psychological and behavioral
4 ways of parents --
1. Authoritative: warm , attend to child’s needs, parents set clear standards and
enforce the rules with warmth and explanations!! D + W HIGH!
2. Permissive-- value self-expression or self regulation, exert little control over child’s
behavior, LOTS OF WARMTH, little demand
3. Authoritarian ----value control and unquestionable obedience, parents expect absolute
obedience and enforce rules with physical punishment and consequence, lots of control
and little warmth! DEMAND HIGHAND WARMTH LOW
4. Uninvolved: emotionally detached and withdrawn, make few demands, do not care
about child’s decisions!! DEMAND and WARMTH LOT
1. Authoritative: kids are independent and self-reliant, explorative behaviors
• Task persistant!!-= good academics!!
2. Authoritarian: anxious, lonely, vulnerable to stress, poor school performance
• Anxious and Moody, hostile, bad school performance!!
3. Permissive: kids are disobedient, demanding and depend on adults, poor self-reliance
• Kids do not listen, they are given too much freedom, kids depend too much on
adults and have poor self-reliance!!
4. Uninvolved: disruption in attachments and peer relationships, non-compliance and low
• Kids are very aggressive, lack of self-control!
Tidal moms (mothers fromAsian cultures, who emphasize school performance) and helicopter
parents (Over protective parents)
EXAMMM: Parent Child Interactions:
• Sometimes parents start with authoritative, but if kids no not respond well –
parents switch to authoritarian!!
• Serotonin transporter gene –they fouhnd on stressful situations -- not always
results in negative effect --
• Genes affect how kids respond to parenting styles!!
Variations in Child rearing:
• Economically disadvantaged families tend to use more authoritarian parenting styles--
ECONOMIC DISTRESS HYPOTHESIS -- parents are poor, this switches their
moods and changes parenting style, the types of jobs (these peip
• Rich families: despite parents advanced education and greater material wealth, kids
still had drug problems and did poorly in school
• Authoritarianism in Chinese families -- it did not have the same negative effects –
authoritarian style of parenting is not seen as cold style in Chinese kids
• No-nonsense parenting inAfrican-American families; this leads to good outcomes for
Having good relationship with parents up to adolescence is one of the most important predictor
• Sibling rivalry: arrival of new baby is difficult experience for pre-school kids;
parental differential treatment
• • Birth order effects intelligence: the larger the family, the lower the IQ of all kids
• Only-kids characteristics: higher in self-esteem and achievement motivation!
• Discouraging or encouraging mothers to work?
• Mothers work –has no effect on kids development
Family structure and diversity:
• The % of married parents decreased, the % of single parents increased, the % of same
sex parents also increased!!
• Generally well adjusted, but have increased rick as hyperactivity, academic and
emotional difficulties, learning disabilities
• Adopted kids developed better that kids in foster families or those that returned to their
• Sweded: they followed 600 kids who were put in foster home, some kids were adopted,
some went back to foster homes, some went back to parents
• Results: adopted kids were the best, then foster home kids, then kids who were giveback
• Adopted kids have learning and emotional difficulties!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
• Age of adoption matters -- the later kids were adopted, the lower the IQ
Gay and Lesbian families;
• More equal split of housework b/wpartners
• Children are well adjusted, no negative social consequences
• No gender role disruptions • KIDS developed well, no differences in terms of sexual orientations or emotions!!!!!!!!!
• Quality of family relationships
Impact of Divorce:
• Before divorce – lots of marital conflicts
• After divorce: custody given to mothers (60%), joint custody (30%), custody to fathers
• Mothers tend to use more authoritarian methods, fathers become more permissive –
• Children’s reaction to divorce depends on age and gender—
• Boys tend to be more vocalizing about divorce, girls keep everything inside!!!!!!
• Boys are more affected by divorce b/c they show more visible behavior
• The younger the kids = more affected!
• Remarriages are common
• 1. Mother-stepfather families (boys benefit more)
• 2. Father-stepmother families (Boys benefit more)
• Parents tend to favor their own biological kids!!!
• Small or moderate doses = no negative effects
• Effects of development depend on content watched and childrens understanding
• Television could be related to aggression – MEAN WORD BELIEF – as kids watch
more aggressive behaviors on TV they become desensitized to it!
• Example: early on in development kids are sensitive to contingency • Television can also improve pro-social behaviors and cognitive development -- Ex:
Sesame street- people who watched Sesame street could count