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December 5th Lecture.docx

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York University
PSYC 2110
Jean Varghese

December 5 Lecture • Very recently we started to value emotional value of parenting – economic value of child decreases b/c kids can no longer walk!! • Lots of investment and little return!! • Astudy on working moms: working moms enjoyed less taking care of kids compared to other activities!!! • Recent study: overall people who have kids are happier, single parent –less satisfied, young parent - also less satisfie!!! Family as a system: • Researchers found: if you train mice to show fear response, when they looked at DNA-- they had seen gene changes—over time kids and grandkids became more scared of that smell- the gene for fear is passed from parent to offspring!! Family as developing system: • More single adults, people tend to marry at older age, there’s more divorces • PETER PAN Syndrome: when an adult refuses to be an adult!!! Parental Behavior: 1. Acceptance/Responsiveness : how much affection parents give to their kids, ** Rejecting/Unresponsive ------------------ Warm/responsive!!! 2. Demandingness/Control (behavioral VS psychological): how much supervision *** Permissive/undemanding ---------- restrictive/demanding If parents do not exercise control over their kids= leads to deficiencies in self control!! The purpose of this is to help children develop!!! Consequences of secure attachment: proper cognitive development (more explorotary, better phys development, more problem solving) 2 types of control -- Psychological and behavioral 4 ways of parents -- 1. Authoritative: warm , attend to child’s needs, parents set clear standards and enforce the rules with warmth and explanations!! D + W HIGH! 2. Permissive-- value self-expression or self regulation, exert little control over child’s behavior, LOTS OF WARMTH, little demand 3. Authoritarian ----value control and unquestionable obedience, parents expect absolute obedience and enforce rules with physical punishment and consequence, lots of control and little warmth! DEMAND HIGHAND WARMTH LOW 4. Uninvolved: emotionally detached and withdrawn, make few demands, do not care about child’s decisions!! DEMAND and WARMTH LOT Consequences: 1. Authoritative: kids are independent and self-reliant, explorative behaviors • Task persistant!!-= good academics!! 2. Authoritarian: anxious, lonely, vulnerable to stress, poor school performance • Anxious and Moody, hostile, bad school performance!! 3. Permissive: kids are disobedient, demanding and depend on adults, poor self-reliance • Kids do not listen, they are given too much freedom, kids depend too much on adults and have poor self-reliance!! 4. Uninvolved: disruption in attachments and peer relationships, non-compliance and low self-esteem • Kids are very aggressive, lack of self-control! Tidal moms (mothers fromAsian cultures, who emphasize school performance) and helicopter parents (Over protective parents) EXAMMM: Parent Child Interactions: • Sometimes parents start with authoritative, but if kids no not respond well – parents switch to authoritarian!! • Serotonin transporter gene –they fouhnd on stressful situations -- not always results in negative effect -- • Genes affect how kids respond to parenting styles!! Variations in Child rearing: SES effects: • Economically disadvantaged families tend to use more authoritarian parenting styles-- ECONOMIC DISTRESS HYPOTHESIS -- parents are poor, this switches their moods and changes parenting style, the types of jobs (these peip • Rich families: despite parents advanced education and greater material wealth, kids still had drug problems and did poorly in school Ethnicity effects: • Authoritarianism in Chinese families -- it did not have the same negative effects – authoritarian style of parenting is not seen as cold style in Chinese kids • No-nonsense parenting inAfrican-American families; this leads to good outcomes for children! Having good relationship with parents up to adolescence is one of the most important predictor factors!! Siblings system: • Sibling rivalry: arrival of new baby is difficult experience for pre-school kids; parental differential treatment • • Birth order effects intelligence: the larger the family, the lower the IQ of all kids • Only-kids characteristics: higher in self-esteem and achievement motivation! Parental employment: • Discouraging or encouraging mothers to work? • Mothers work –has no effect on kids development Family structure and diversity: • The % of married parents decreased, the % of single parents increased, the % of same sex parents also increased!! Adoption: • Generally well adjusted, but have increased rick as hyperactivity, academic and emotional difficulties, learning disabilities • Adopted kids developed better that kids in foster families or those that returned to their biological mothers • Sweded: they followed 600 kids who were put in foster home, some kids were adopted, some went back to foster homes, some went back to parents • Results: adopted kids were the best, then foster home kids, then kids who were giveback to parents!! • Adopted kids have learning and emotional difficulties!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • Age of adoption matters -- the later kids were adopted, the lower the IQ Gay and Lesbian families; • More equal split of housework b/wpartners • Children are well adjusted, no negative social consequences • No gender role disruptions • KIDS developed well, no differences in terms of sexual orientations or emotions!!!!!!!!! • Quality of family relationships Impact of Divorce: • Before divorce – lots of marital conflicts • After divorce: custody given to mothers (60%), joint custody (30%), custody to fathers (10%) • Mothers tend to use more authoritarian methods, fathers become more permissive – • Children’s reaction to divorce depends on age and gender— • Boys tend to be more vocalizing about divorce, girls keep everything inside!!!!!! • Boys are more affected by divorce b/c they show more visible behavior • The younger the kids = more affected! • Remarriages are common • 1. Mother-stepfather families (boys benefit more) • 2. Father-stepmother families (Boys benefit more) • Parents tend to favor their own biological kids!!! Television effects: • Small or moderate doses = no negative effects • Effects of development depend on content watched and childrens understanding • Television could be related to aggression – MEAN WORD BELIEF – as kids watch more aggressive behaviors on TV they become desensitized to it! • Example: early on in development kids are sensitive to contingency • Television can also improve pro-social behaviors and cognitive development -- Ex: Sesame street- people who watched Sesame street could count
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