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PSYC 2120
Doug Mc Cann

Chapter 9 prejudice: a negative attitude toward members of a group, which is often very strongly held discrimination: negative, harmful behaviour toward people based on their group membership genocide: an attempt to systematically eliminate an ethnic group through banishment or murder stereotypes: individuals beliefs that members of a group share particular attributes Prejudice and Discrimination Today – social norms now censure prejudice and people are less likely to express negative feelings publicly – some people possess unfavourable implicit attitudes toward disadvantaged groups but are not consciously aware of these negative automatic responses – old fashioned blatant racial discrimination has been replaced by subtle and ambiguous discrimination – many majority groups members have ambivalent or conflicted feelings toward minorities – majority group members often support equal opportunities and regard themselves as unprejudiced and nondiscriminatory, but simultaneously harbour some negative beliefs and hostile feelings toward minority group – aversive racism: a modern kind of prejudice held by people who do not consider themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusations of being prejudice aversive, but who nevertheless harbour some negative beliefs and hostile feelings toward members of minority groups Two Costs of Stereotypes: Oversimplification and Negativity – we may assume too much uniformity or similarity within groups of people, especially with respect to large collections such as, ethnic group, nationalities,genders and occupation – outgroup homogeneity: the tendency for perceivers to overestimate similarity within groups to which they do not belong – stereotypes of large groups are oversimplified and when applied to a particular individual, often inaccurate – when we uses stereotypes to categorize people, we frequently make assumptions that are wrong – they are often unfavourable, containing negative traits – bad mood leads to negative stereotypes – may be negative because people may be unfamiliar with a group and feel uncomfortable when interacting with them Stereotypes Distort Information Processing – humans are not open and unbiased processors of information – stereotypes guide attention and interpretation in such a way as to increase the probability that percievers expectations will be confirmed Stereotypes GuideAttention – stereotypes affect what perceivers notice about a certain group – stereotypes can bias attention Stereotypes Guide Interpretation – can distort information processing by affecting how perceivers interpret the behaviour of people in the group – actions that are ambiguous will tend to be interpreted as consistent with expectations The Potential Vicious Cycle of Stereotypes – stereotypes provide a guide for how we behave toward other people, our behaviour towards other people can influence that persons behaviour toward us – self fulfilling prophecy: a perceivers expectancy about a target person influences the perceivers behaviour toward the target person in such a way as to elicit the expected actions from the target person Do Stereotypes Influence our perceptions if We Disagree with Them? Subliminal priming procedure: a method of activating a schema or stereotype by flashing words or pictures very briefly on a computer screen in front of a participant\ Implicit intergroup bias: distorted judgements about members of a group based on a stereotype, which can occur without the person's awareness – stereotypes can automatically influence judgements without perceivers awareness – it is not deliberate and may be unrecognized meta-stereotypes: a persons beliefs about the stereotype that outgroup members hold concerning his or her own group – can influence peoples expectations about their interactions with members of the outgroup – believe that members of an outgroup evaluate ones ingroup negatively might cause hostile, aversive interactions Emotional Sources of Prejudice – people may become frustrated during difficult economic times and vent their frustrations on the weak scapegoat theory: a theory proposing that prejudice occurs because members of dominant groups use discrimination against members of weak target groups to vent their frustration and disappointment (gay bashing) – members of the disadvantaged group serve merely as scapegoats: they had little or no direct role in causing the frustration, but provide convenient target of blame realistic group conflict theory: a theory proposing that when groups in society are perceived to be competing with one another for resources, intergroup hostility can be aroused, which leads to prejudice (disliking immigrant because you think they take jobs) social identity theory: people form negative impressions of members of an outgroup in order to make their own g
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