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Chapter 9 Notes.docx

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PSYC 2120
Ward Struthers

Chapter 9 Stereotypes Prejudice and DiscriminationIntroductionAaron Webster was murdered on November 17 2001 as a result of a hate crime he was openly gayKilling based on simply someone belonging toward a groupprejudicePrejudice a negative attitude toward members of a group which is often very strongly heldDerives from the fact that the perceiver prejudges the targetdisliking based only on their group membershipPossible to also be positively prejudicedbut SP only focuses refers to prejudice as negativeDiscriminationpossible consequence of negative prejudice negative harmful behavior toward people based on their group membershipPositive discrimination can also occur reverse discrimination giving special or preferential treatment to members of ethnic groupPrejudiceattitudeDiscriminationbehaviorGenocide An attempt to systematically eliminate an ethnic group through banishment or murderStereotypes individuals belief that members of a group share particular attributesStereotypes of groups are largely positive so can be referred to as positiveby SPNegative stereotypes can provide the basis for prejudice and discriminationPrejudice and Discrimination TodayToday ethnic conflict and religious hatredgroups unable tounwilling to find peace solutionsBut racial and religious confrontations in Canada seem rarer today than 20 or 30 years ago claim to be more favorable towards most minority groupsMade illegal equal access to employers social norms censure prejudice and more sophisticated at hiding their prejudiceFool selves into think they are unprejudiced but remain biasedlaughing without recognizing the demeaning stereotype revealedImplicit attitudes automatic and often unconscious evaluations of a targetpossess it but not consciously ware of their negative responsesDovidio and Gaerner Blatant racial discrimination has been replaced by more subtle and ambiguous discrimination Aversive racismAmbivalent and conflicted feelings toward minoritiesSupport equal opportunities and regard themselves as unprejudicedAversive Racism a modern kind of prejudice held by people who do not consider themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusation of being prejudiced aversive but who nevertheless harbour some negative beliefs and hostile feelings towards members of minority groupsMajority group members would exhibit discrimination toward minorities when the circumstances made negative treatment justifiable thereby providing an excuse 2 different samples of White Americans in 1989 and 1999Predicted that more recent sample would report less blatant prejudice toward Blacks than earlier sampleBut there would be little change in same discriminatory behavior when circumstances provided an excuse1Explicit attitude shown through extent of agreement I would mind if Black family moved next door2Assessment of black and white applicants for a jobParticipants assessed B and W applicants similarly when qualifications were clearAmbiguous qualifications lead to more positive assessments of W than B applicantsExplicit and blatant prejudice revealed less prejudice but B were evaluated just as negatively as 10 years ago with ambiguous qualificationsDiscrimination continues when circumstances mask itHarbour prejudice against but either lie or denyunwilling to admitunaware of negative feelingsImplicit Association Test IAT assess respondents automatic implicit attitudes toward minority groupsFacial EMG used as physiological measure of prejudiceStereotypes Cognitive Sources of Prejudice and DiscriminationPrejudice is not acceptable but the byproduct of normal humans thinking processCognitive view of prejudice is stereotypesRobert Gardner Canadians have well developed stereotypes of Anglophones and FrancophoneStereotypes are schemas represent human groups and serve important functionsGoing beyond the information given sort objects into categories to make assumptions and impose meaning and predictability on our environmentStereotypes efficiently provide us information about target persons that guide behavior and make rapid inferences about target personsTwo Costs of Stereotypes Oversimplification and Negativity1We may assume too much uniformity or similarity within groups of people ethnic groups nationalities genders and occupationsOutgroup homogeneity effect plays a roleCategories of inanimate objects are predictablenot humans stereotypes are inaccurate1Unfavourable in toneSome stereotypes may consist mainly of positive characteristics other stereotypes contain negative traitsIBecause of outgroup competing for resources role of competitionIIBeing in a bad mood leads perceivers to interpret their stereotypes of some minority groups more negatively Negative emotions can both elicit and intensify unfavourable stereotypesIAnother reason stereotypesmay lead to hostility is because people are not familiar with the members of the groupPeople may label their anxiety as dislike for the groupUnfamiliarity and anxiety may spill over into mistrust and hostilityAnxiety about interacting with members of the outgroup will also lead people to avoid such interactionsStereotypes Distort Information ProcessingHumans are biasand not open processors of informationIncreases probability that perceivers expectancies will be confirmed
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