PSYC 2120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Dependent And Independent Variables, Cocaine Dependence
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Social Psychology- Lecture 1- 5 th
A. The Scientic Method
1. Make an observation
2. Formulate a hypothesis about what you have observed
- What you think the cause is
3. Test the hypothesis
- By making further observations
- Re-write and keep altering the hypothesis
- If the same results are received again then you know the hypothesis
- If the results are di%erent every time then the hypothesis isn’t right
= requiring to reconstruct the hypothesis
- Need to relate the cause and e%ect of things as a relationship.
Things that help the experiment
1. Measurement: The process of assigning numbers to things
a. The number: is supposedly the underlining characteristics that
are being measured
I. Variables: attributes or characteristics of individuals
II. Construct: what exits; what you are trying to measure
Eg. Your anxiety is 30 on scale = but 30 is what is close
to your anxiety level it is NOT the actual (perfect)
Question is: How good is your measure?
: How reliable is your scale?
Eg. Con8ict Tactic Scale: Di%erent people using
di%erent scales would measure/rate the same
individual’s con8ict level di%erently depending on the
scale they are using
2. Characteristics of a good measure (measure that is most constant)
a. Reliability: consistency of measurement
i. Do you get the same score every time?
You can’t expect consistency to remain the same
if the construct has changed
oEg. Personality – Introverted vs.
The >rst time you test them will not
be any di%erent than the second or
third time. A person if introverted
will remain so. Thus the test should
depict no change.
b. Validity: Does the experiment measure what it is supposed to
i. Construct Validity: established by showing the scale
behaves the way it is supposed to
ii. Predictive Validity
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