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PSYC 2130 (210)
Lecture

Personality Ch 1-5 8-10

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2130
Professor
Frank Marchese
Semester
Fall

Description
Personality 9/10/2012 10:28:00 AM Personality is developed over the years. We are never fully “intergrated” with out personalities, and we are always trying to get integrated. Dynamics *Pattern refers that personality is never set. It is dynamic, and much more dynamic than at other times. If conflict is strong enough, there is some discrepancy amongst cognitive dissonance. The two behaviors aren’t in harmony. We resolve cognitive dissonance by changing your attitude, to be harmonious to your behavior. Change your behavior is pretty much how you do it. Once you achieve statis, you feel integrated, and balance. When not in statis, we try to restasis ourselves. We spend lots of time trying to reestablish statis. Psychoanalytic Mixed feelings – ambivalent. Trait theory Behavorial theory Biological approaches CH 1: Scientific Outlook Personality – a psychological construct – a complex abstraction encompassing a person’s genetic and experiential background and history that combined determined habitual and unique ways of responding. People behave in different situations from scenario A and B. Behaving in A may be considered inappropriate for B. Awareness of expectations are fulfilled through manners and words, which keeps us “on track” in the sense that we won’t deviate from a “normal” path. A zone of safety, and not being interested of venturing outside the unknown, can be a way of staying on track. This is because we are not comfortable in getting out of our normal zone. Laws keep us on track. Accommodation is making change in our personality. Assimilation is coming in, and accommodation is making change. We are a unique, and non-repeatable phenomenon. A. Implicit theories of personality – our own “naïve” notions of personality as a person’s temperament, social attractiveness, or otherwise or one has “no personality”. Implicit theories are not grounded in careful observation, limit what qualifies as personality, and imply that some people “have” and others “do not have” a personality. We need to fulfill each other’s interests, Hobbs called this the “social contract”. We do this out of necessity. We become sensitized to ourselves and others. We can put our personalities into others by talking to them. Origins: Term personality derived from “persona” meaning masks. We can put on the mask of any personality, and as long as we have the qualities that fit well within that mask, we can play it convincingly. A. Derived from early Greek and Roman theatre – different masks mean different, yet consistent personalities – consistent attitudes and behavior. Joker, court jester, villain, they all act the part of their masks. The mask that’s worn by the character has qualities that inform of whether the person is benevolent, naïve, etc. B. Personality means recognizable individual differences. C. What influences these consistencies and differences? Heredity, environment, or some combination of two. 20 thcent, personality is shaped th by culture and circumstance. 19 cent view is that it’s genetic. 3 people challenged, saying that culture shapes personality? Freud, early childhood experiences is important for shaping a personality, even though it is also genetic. Humongulus, something that’s fully formed, and something that nearly grows in size. You’re born with your personality. Like begets like. D. Scientific study of personality attempts to predict, control, and explain individual differences. Trying to determine the causes of differences in people. Psychology is a behavioral, social science. Concept of Personality – No universally agreed upon definition, yet there are conceptions of personality. These are offered definitions by people: Kluckhorn and Murray offered the following – Every person is in certain respects:  Like all other people. In genetic similarity, we are common. We also have cultural similarities, most times.  Like some other people.  Like no other person. We come up with our own uniqueness There are universal phobias, like darkness, spiders, snakes, etc. There are certain features we share in common. All humans have the capacity to learn any language, provided they can hear it and imitate it, from the ages of 2-6. Pervin (1989): Personality represents those characteristics of the person that account for consistent patterns of behavior. Allport (1961): Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine characteristic thought and behavior. Methods of Research 9/10/2012 10:28:00 AM Anyone of a particular mask puts up a “mask” to display their personality.  We don’t share the same characteristics to the same degree, and they don’t configure to others.  We like to say nature vs nurture  Traits are biologically influenced, from a weak to strong biological influence.   Genotype is genetic endowment, your genetic information in ur genes which may not emerge, and phenotype is the expressed characteristic which is not only observed, but measured as well (blue eyes, height, weight, etc) Personality If deviation is abrupt, we say “you’re not being yourself today” Intra individual differences, the individual varies. Science makes hypothesis from theories of personality We try to control situations, and present ourselves in a given way Concept of personality We fear the unfamiliar; groups that are unfamiliar, the dark, etc Xenophobia, fearing familiar others, such as other tribes, rituals, etc Paleocortex (old) vs Neocortex (new) Relates to Fight or flight, or = residence of the past SPC, the paleo cortex is the old brain, and NE, the neocortex is new, in terms of what part of the brain we use. Just noticeable difference has to do with your awareness, attention. PErvin characterizes personality as predictable. Personality represents those consistent patterns of behavior Allport: Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine characteristic thought and behavior Analysis of Allport’s definition  Personality is dynamic, not static  It is organized and structured, not an accumulation of traits. Traits are linked, which influence a particular behavior. A disorganized personality is usually with an unhealthy person, vise versa.  It is a psychological concept within a physical entity-the body. Physical changes brings about changes in psychology, in identity, like gender identity, or going from small to bulked.  It is a causal force that influences thought and action. If we consider ourselves as extroverts, it influences our experiences and decisions. Definition and theory – serves four functions 1) to organize and provide clarity to observations 2) to explain causes so that prediction may occur 3) to provide understanding 4) to generate new ideas and research A. Theoretical constructs: Linguistic-conceptual inventions that assist in explanation. E.g., ego, anxiety, achievement motivation, internal-external locus of control (is fate in your hands, or in the hands of other forces?), etc Making things happen – self actualizing. Doing things yourself. B. Functions of constructs: to tie together and organize relationships among observations Evaluation of theory – uses the following criteria: 1) empirical validity: Is the theory supported by evidence from experimental observations? 2) Parsimony: Does the theory provide a simple, concise account of the phenomena? 3) Comprehensiveness: Is the theory broad in scope? 4) Coherence: Is the theory internally consistent and free of contradictions? 5) Testability: is the theory capable of generating testable hypothesis? 6) Usefulness: Can the theory be applied to practical problems? Behavioral psychology is applied to education through learning theory and psychotherapy. Cognitive theory is applied to practical problems, understanding their thinking and learning in the classroom. 7) Acceptability: Is the theory generally accepted by scientists? Scientific theories: are grounded in systematic observation, with the intent of describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling aspects of the phenomenon (personality) that is being investigated. Systematic observation based on observation, not experience. i. scientific study of individual differences ii. It attempts to create theories which predict. The theories are subjected to empirical validation. - For example, test anxiety may lead to poor test performance. Create high test anxiety and observe subsequent performance decrement. iii. when hypotheses are confirmed as in test anxiety and performance decrement, a theory receives empirical support iv. a theory is a conceptual device to organize, make sense of, and explain phenomena ll. Building theories: A. Inductive approaches start with numerous observations and note recurrent consistencies of observed relationships. This leads to laws such as the law of effect: Behavior followed by reward is strengthened and by punishment is weakened. Thorndike called reward, satisfiers, and punishment, annoyers when testing. Most science is built on philosophy Empirical research – gaining knowledge by means of direct or indirect observations and experience. B. Deductive approaches derive from observations and are inventions in the form of hypothesis, which are tested and research may be replicated so as to determine the generalizability of the phenomenon. In the area of social psychology, for example, it was noted that high anxiety produces greater affiliation. Both anxiety and affiliation are constructs that can be operationally defined to make the measurement of each variable possible. For example, self-esteem is operationally defined as one’s responses to a questionnaire that is related to the construct of self esteem under investigation. A generalization applies to everyone but to no one in particular. In research, we must define the variables in the question, and measure them. C. Types of Laws in psychology 1) S-R LAWS attempt to summarize the relationship between stimulus variables and response variables. S-R LAWS are causal statements that specify that if the stimulus varies the response will vary because there is a causal relationship between the two. Such laws allow prediction and control. A variable that influences behavior. - For example, high anxiety will lead to lower test performance. As anxiety is manipulated so is test performance likely to change in systematic ways (see Yerkes-Dodson Law on arousal and performance in complex and simple task situations) When at a low level of arousal, or high level, you’ll perform bad in a test, but if your just mediocre in arousal, you’ll get high scores. In low arousal, you don’t want to be there. Optimum arousal is just mediocre, and you think clearly, can pay attention to the test, and have sufficient motivation. The Yerkes-Dodson law is demonstrated through research in which you manipulate human arousal and get scores in performance. The S-R law; stimulus is deprivation and the resulting performance is speed of learning. In animals, if there is enough deprivation of food, then learning will be rapid. If deprivation is severe, then the animal will not perform very well, if he’s not hungry, then he has no motivation to learn. Animals that aren’t too much of either side can learn fast. More in experimental investigation More in correlational investigation R-R LAW 2) R-R LAWS are non causal and attempt to examine the relationship between variables that are correlational in nature. Again, test anxiety is measured, as is test performance, and it is noted that there is a negative correlation. As test anxiety increases, test performance decreases. We just see if the two variables have a relationship. R-R LAWS may be used to make predictions as S-R LAWS are used. In S-R LAWS however, some aspect of the environment is manipulated to influence the response outcome. In R-R LAWS this is not the case, nothing is manipulated. Personality: Chapter 2 Methods of Personality Research and Assessment 1. Basic Research Methods: 1) Correlation study: Galton in late 1800’s studies correlation between intelligence scores for identical and fraternal twins. 2) Case Study: Freud in late 1800’s studies individual cases in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 3) Experimental Method: Early 1900’s Pavlov studies the conditioned reflex. A. Each researcher choose a type of researcher suitable to theory and goals of research. No one method superior to other. B. Case study suited for in-depth study of individual-a detailed qualitative description of individual. A detailed qualitative description of individual. Yields useful hypotheses about relationships among phenomena. C. Correlational method suited for noting degree of relationship between two variables: e.g., relationship between age and use of various psychological defenses. READ CHART IN PG 95 D. Experimental method examines cause and effect: e.g., how amount of viewing TV violence affects amount of aggressive behavior (pg 30 look at example) E. Case study of aggression (pg 26-27) Correlation of aggression (pg 27 & 32, 33), Experimental study of viewing TV violence and aggression (pg 27, 28, 30) Research Methods  Surveys  Case study – clinical work  Naturalistic observation – used by social psychologists and the study of species of animals  Cross-cultural comparison – the big 5 personality factors, are they found in other cultures?  Longitudinal study – developmental psychology, usually with children. A study overtime.  Cross-sectional study  Experiment  Correlation study 9/10/2012 10:28:00 AM What is a case study, and what does it do? What are its limitations? Do this on aggression especially. Correlation between viewing violent programing and behaving aggressively. Viewing the behavior in a more naturalistic setting is at home, observing. A child’s life at home, playground, and classroom. Naturalistic observation is observing in study without interference. We attempt to manipulate and control the phenomenon and investigation. In an experiment, we move the child into a specialized setting, like a lab, and show him a film of an adult being aggressive, and see if he plays aggressively with toys. Research is more qualitative research. As soon as we go into correlation, it goes into quantitative research. We’re identifying variables. In a correlational method, no attempt it made to interfere or control. It is to compare a relationship. In an experimental, we do attempt to control or manipulate. In the experiment, we can specify a cause and effect relationship. Random assignment means making a random pool of subjects, and putting them into a control or experimental group with equal chance of placement (usually, they choose). Independent variable in aggression is viewing violent programing (experimental). We measure aggression of the experimental and control group, and observe a difference. The difference must be significance. A. Each researcher chooses a type of research suitable to theory and goals of research. No method is superior than the other. All research makes a lot of knowledge, and we see how strong the relationship is in a correlational study; weak or strong relationship. We use statistics to determine this. The direction of the relationship is also noted. Ex. As the violent programming increases, violent acts increase. This is a positive correlation. Shoe size and academic performance have no relationship. B. Case study suited for in-depth study of individual, a detailed qualitative description of individual. Yields useful hypothesis about relationships. This is good for personality assessment. Methods of study in Psychology 1. Observational methods Collecting information about behavior without trying to change it  Non Participant observation o E.g studying children through a one way mirror  Participant Observation: o E.g studying recruit behavior in boot camp by going through it yourself. Problem with this is that you have no in depth research with the men, and you’re at risk with having more bias with the subjects your observing. You might modify their behavior by your interactions, when you should not be interfering with it. They also modify your behavior.  Non participant observation gives you more pure data, and subjective. 2. Survey Methods Collecting information about behavior through questionnaires and surveys  E.g. the famous Kinsey Report on sexual behavior. Man began to publish research of sexuality studies. He began in 1940.  Master and Johnson on the human sexual response, influenced from Kinsey. 3. Case Study Methods In depth study of one individual  E.g studying the behavior of a client in therapy. 4. Correlational methods Determining the degree of relationship between variables.  E.g, investigating the relationship between the number of hours adolescents view TV and their grades in school. 5. Experimental Methods Manipulating one or more variables to determine the effect on some behavior e.g, studying the effect of vitamin B12 deprivation on maze learning in rats. I. Observational Methods in psychology A. Naturalistic observation involved watching behaviors as they occur naturally. 1. Observer bias may occur with this method. You can look towards a child’s cousin, friends, parents, etc. This is all part of naturalistic observation. Ethology is the study of the natural behavior in the environment. Critical period and imprinting is two main aspects in this. This in relation to aggression, imprinting, chicks will follow the first thing they see moving. In critical period, they’ll be more aggressive in certain periods of their life. Genetic similarity Kin selection hypothesis. As a mother, if you make sure one shares genes in common, and help them til reproducing, then you make sure your genes continue on by altruism by helping the offspring out. 2. Behaviors may not occur when you are watching. 3. The behaviors that the observer wants to watch may not occur when desired. 4. The method of naturalistic observation doesn’t help explain behaviors, only describe them. B. Surveys are a means of collecting observations from a large number of subjects by interview or questionnaire. Large amount of subjects are interviewed. Covariance – variables are interrelated. Demographics.  1. Surveys ask a sample of respondents the same question or set of questions  2. Surveys can provide a general data base  3. The size and representativeness of the sample is critical. C. A case history provides in depth information on one or a few persons studied over a long period of time. 1. It examines a wide range of variables. 2. It is usually retrospective. We move into the individuals past, and gather information in relation to the individual and his/her past. In response to questions, he/she goes into retrospect (their past) to answer questions. 3. Interviews and/or tests may be used to gather data. 4. Its major advantage is that it provides much detail 5. Its chief disadvantage is that it may be difficult to generalize case study findings. Those generalizations may have more solidity and may not be founded. Another word for instincts is species specific behavior. Stereotyping is common “I guess this is what a 5 year old behaves like. I guess they’re all like that” II. Correlational Methods in Psychology A. Correlation is a statistical procedure that can be used to assess the nature and degree to which sets of observations are lawfully related. 1. The difficult part of this study is devising acceptable operational definitions for the responses. 2. Two sets of data must then be collected. 3. A correlation coefficient may range from -1.00 to +1.00 A. A positive correlation means that high scores on one measure are related to high scores on the other or vice versa B. a negative number means that high scores on one response are related to low scores on the other. C. Zero correlations indicate the two set of observations are not related to each other. D. as correlations approach zero, predictability decreases. If the relationship between two variables is strong, then it’s certain that one variable stands on the other. E. The closer to +1.00 or -1.00, the stronger the relationship. F. Cause-effect conclusions are inappropriate for correlational studies. G. Even when two responses are highly correlated with each other, predictions cannot be made for individual cases. If we know that watching a good amount of TV effects scholastic performance, it can’t be tied to an individual, it must be applied to everyone. Survey’s acclimatizes you to the chapter in a matter of seconds, in a novel. SQ3R’s Method. Do this when studying. Survey. Questions. Read. Recite. Review. III. Experimental Methods in Psychology A. Experimental methods involve a set of operations that investigate relationships between controlled and manipulated events. 1. Independent variables are the conditions the experimenter manipulates 2. Dependent variables are measured by the experimenter and depend on the manipulation of the independent variable. 3. Extraneous variables are all other variables that might influence the dependent variables. Anatomy of an experiment Possible subjects (population) – Random assignment (sample) Randomly assigned to one of two conditions (controls for subject differences); Experimental group – view violent tv programs Control group – view non-violent tv programs (independent variable) – Controls extraneous variables Behavior test scores – Help or hurt button. Independent variable – tv programs children watched. Dependent variable – aggressive play from children Consult pg 34 in Ch 2 for correlation examples. Personality CH 3 1. Psychoanalysis refers to procedures for changing personality based on a comprehensive theory of personality and a related approach to research. Freud was the originator of psychoanalysis, and his ideas dominate the Psychoanalytic strategy. Freud wasn’t a psychiatrist or a psychologist, by training, he was a medical doctor who specialized in neurology. He moved into psychiatric and psychological areas via training and neurology. J Breuer 1880’s, implied psychoanalytic treatment, 15 years before Freud entered the scene. He was the first person who did this form of treatment. He was greatly influenced by the success of Anna O who was treated. Freud and Breuer were good friends and colleagues. Breuer made the Cathartic method. Catharsis is the process of releasing and providing relief from strong or repressed emotion. It has to do with emotional release, strong repressed emotions. Catharsis has to do with the release of strong emotion, that may have been repressed, that is blocked from expression, and in the subconscious. The memory of the event (it’s painful) and the emotion associated with that event is expressed in this treatment. You can repress the event, but still remember the emotion. The memory and the emotion coincide, but they also dissociate, where the memory is repressed, and you experience the emotion, or vice versa, or both can be repressed. One can have a catharsis and a release, but won’t remember the memory. Breuer was able to get Anna O to have a catharsis, and recall the event repressed. He discovered that repression of the emotion and memory are very stubborn. Neither are able to be easily released. He asked her questions, and induced a hypnosis and went to an auto hypnotic trance, and recalled certain events that were repressed, and when through an emotional catharsis released. She then felt an enormous sense of relief and calm. Hypocretes said - The body influences the mind, and vice versa. 4 major humors, which determined 4 majors types. Physical influence is psychological. Anna O was diagnosed as hysterical, and showed a high amount of problems; lapses of memory, sensory and motor control, mute state, etc. Once her catharsis was done, her symptoms started disappearing. She chimney sweeped her subconscious, after having hysteria, and saying that Breuer was gonna have a baby (she believed she was pregnant). The more she expressed in a catharsis, the better she became. She went on to be a very influential woman 2. Signmund freud was te first to popularize the psychotherapy treatment. 3. Freud conceptualized the framework of the mind in two ways: functions of personality (id, ego, superego) and levels of awareness (unconscious, preconscious, and conscious). 4. Psychoanalytic psychology theories fall into five broad camps: Classical Freudians (who follow Freud to the letter), revisionist stage theorists (like Erik Erikson), motivational psychologists (Murray White, and more), ego psychologists (more focused on the id), and object relations theorists (Melanie Kline and Maller). CH 4: Origins of Development of Personality 9/10/2012 10:28:00 AM Personality CH 3 Psychodynamic. From Freud. 1. Psychoanalysis refers to procedures for changing personality based on a comprehensive theory of personality and a related approach to research. Freud was the originator of psychoanalysis, and his ideas dominate the psychoanalytic strategy. Psychoanalytic looks at personality as a whole. It is a comprehensive theory of personality. Freud divided the mind into 3 parts, conscious, preconscious, subconscious, and personality into id, ego, superego. Freud was primarily interested into subconscious, and how it influences behavior and personality expressions. He was interested in all 3 parts of personality. Conflicts can be stressful to the individual, and can emerge as symptoms in personality disorders. Ego represents the rational, superego is conscience, id is primal. Superego is shaped within an individual by experience and other parents of authority that raised one. It is also based on the internalization of the values that he has learned. Piaget Stages – 1. Sensory motor stage, individual has no motor skills, and experiences everything from their senses. Comes to understand the world through senses and objects in the environment. Doesn’t absorb values. 2. Preoperational stage – starting to note certain relationships. Corresponds to the oral stage. 3. Phallic stage – Freud. Inspired by classical literature. Been considerable revision to his psychoanalytical visions. Neo-Freudians. Freud’s daughter, Anna, was much more orthodox in her methods, and tried to reserve he fathers legacy. Object relation refers to the mental construct in regards to other people, and the feelings we have for them. 2. Sigmund Freud born on May 6, 1856, wrote 21 books and remains the most cited and probably most influential. Superego is considered the conscience of a persons personality. 3. Freud conceptualized the framework of the mind in two ways: functions of personality (id, ego, superego) and levels of awareness (unconscious, preconscious, and conscious) People had built tension, and have to use fantasy and day dream to ease the tension, to keep them from going crazy. 4. Psych theorists fall into 5 broad camps: Freudians, revisionist stage theorists, motivational psychologists, ego psychologists, and object relations theorists. 5. Psychoanalytic theory posits that inborn forces or drive, direct our thoughts and behavior. Unsatisfied drives result in tension, relieved only when the drive is expressed. 6. The two classes of drives that Freud identified as motivating virtually all human behavior are the self preservative and sexual drives. 7. Classification of the sex drive (libido) as the fundamental drive created much disagreement among post-Freudians, including Carl Jung and Alfred Adler. Sense of superiority means that one feels he has control over his life. Carl Jung believes there is more than just a sex drive that we have. Freud was more of a biological determinist, with innate lusts which drives behavior and personality. 8. Ego psychology is concerned with how the ego copes adaptively with reality through perception, cognition, language, creative production, attention, and memory. Ego is the cognitive and rational aspect of personality. Id strives for pleasure. Ego is governed by the reality principal. Freud believes that with civilization, comes content. Civilization brings repression, control, regulation. With civilization, comes repression. In order for people to be in social order, they’d have to submit to it, and its laws. 9. Object relation theorists believe that people are primarily driven by social needs rather than basic instinctual drives. 10. Psychoanalytic personality assessment uses indirect methods because personality is presumed to operate primarily at an unconscious level beyond the awareness of the individual. 11. Case Studies, usually of patients in psychoanalysis, are the primary research tool of this strategy. Case studies continue to provide the major source of evidence for psychoanalytic personality theory, although other research methods are now also being applied to psychoanalytic theories. 12. Most psychoanalysts are practicing psychotherapists. Psychoanalysts is usually a long process during which the patient is made aware of the underlying, often unconscious determinants of his or her behavior and personality. 13. Modern psychoanalysis has placed increasing emphasis on social relations, lifelong normal personality development, conscious motives, and scientific research methods. Symptoms, verbal and non verbal manners. You can use drawings as a way to get subconscious material. 111 Erikson. Alfred Adler – 115 125 motivational psych object relational psych – Melanie Kline 126, fairbear 128, Margaret maller 129. Dramatic apparitions test pg 85, 118 (mclinen uses TIT to achieve the motivation motive) Pg 95 (another test) – defense mechanism chart – pg 92 shows what projection, etc is pg152-154 the rorshach test – projective test – projecting their memories and images into the test to describe. The individual is describing subjective material, subconscious material. Relate personality theories to the 6 definitions on front page handed out. 1. All of Freud’s theories are characterized by four basic principles:  the dynamic flow of psychic energy in a closed system is responsible for human motivation  all behavior is caused by internal forces  there are three structures and functions of personality-the id, ego, and superego – that are always in conflict  early childhood development determines adult personality, which progresses through a series of specific stages. 2. Freud divided the mind into three levels of awareness: conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Personality functioning is dominated by the unconscious. Personality functioning is dominated by the unconscious 3. Jung proposed an alternative division: conscious ego, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious. Jung emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious, which contains archetypes that are universal predispositions to think and act in common ways. 4. Freud divided personality according to three basic organizational structures. The id concerned with pleasure seeking and is the reservoir of biological drives. It operates through the pleasure principle, which requires immediate gratification of needs. This gratification is accomplished through primary process, in which memory images of goals are formed. 5. The ego is the rational aspect of personality and operates according to the reality principle – the gratification of needs is delayed until an appropriate actual goal can be obtained. This delay of gratification is accomplished through secondary process, which involves problem solving and other intellectual functions. 6. The superego is the moral aspect of personality. It is the internal representative of the values of society and guides the individual toward ideals. 7. The ego serves as a mediator among the pleasure demands of the id, the moral structures of the superego and the requirements and limitations of the real world. Intrapsychic conflicts among the id, ego, and superego play a major role in determining one’s personality. 8. Freud believed that anxiety is a signal of impending danger. He distinguished three types: neurotic anxiety (from an id-ego conflict), moral anxiety or guilt (from an id-superego conflict) and objective anxiety (from actual external dangers) 9. Unconscious ego defense mechanisms keep people from being overwhelmed by unacceptable impulses that are the basis for neurotic and moral anxiety. Repression, in which unacceptable impulses are totally excluded from one’s consciousness, is the most fundamental defense mechanism. Other defense mechanisms include denial, regression, undoing, reaction formation, defensive projection, displacement, rationalization, defensive identification, projective identification, and sublimation. Of these, only sublimation is considered a wholly successful defense mechanism. 10. Freud described four basic stages of psychosexual development. The stages are named after the erogenous zones that predominate at various ages; oral, anal, phallic, and genital. At each stage, one erogenous zone is the focus of libido (sexual energy). Each stage has a conflict that must be successfully resolved to proceed to the next stage. When people have difficulty moving to the next stage (because of frustration or overindulgence in the present stage), they leave more libido fixated at the earlier stage. Fixation results in adult character types. 11. In the oral stage (the first year of life), pleasure is derived from the mouth, from sucking, eating, and biting. The conflict is weaning. The oral character centers on dependency. Post-Freudians have broadened Freud’s theoretical ideas about the oral stage to focus on its social aspects. 12.In the anal stage (second and third years), pleasure is derived from the retention and expulsion of feces. Toilet training is the conflict. The anal character involves three basic traits: orderliness, stinginess, and obstinacy. 13. In the phallic stage (ages 4 and 5), pleasure focuses in the genital region. The Oedipus complex, the conflict in the phallic stage, involves the child’s sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent. CH 4: Origins and development of personality I. Drives and libido: A. A drive is an inborn, intrapsychic force that produces tension which must be relieved. B. There are 3 drives:  Self-preservative for survival  Sexual that deals with physical and psychological pleasure through thoughts, ideas, images, actions – called libido.  Aggressive or death drive or instinct that opposes the life-self- preservative or libidinal forces. CH 8 9/10/2012 10:28:00 AM 1. Characteristics of d
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