Personality 9/10/2012 10:28:00 AM
Personality is developed over the years. We are never fully “intergrated”
with out personalities, and we are always trying to get integrated.
*Pattern refers that personality is never set. It is dynamic, and much more
dynamic than at other times. If conflict is strong enough, there is some
discrepancy amongst cognitive dissonance. The two behaviors aren’t in
harmony. We resolve cognitive dissonance by changing your attitude, to be
harmonious to your behavior. Change your behavior is pretty much how you
do it. Once you achieve statis, you feel integrated, and balance. When not in
statis, we try to restasis ourselves. We spend lots of time trying to
Mixed feelings – ambivalent.
CH 1: Scientific Outlook
Personality – a psychological construct – a complex abstraction
encompassing a person’s genetic and experiential background and history
that combined determined habitual and unique ways of responding.
People behave in different situations from scenario A and B. Behaving in A
may be considered inappropriate for B.
Awareness of expectations are fulfilled through manners and words, which
keeps us “on track” in the sense that we won’t deviate from a “normal” path. A zone of safety, and not being interested of venturing outside the unknown,
can be a way of staying on track. This is because we are not comfortable in
getting out of our normal zone. Laws keep us on track.
Accommodation is making change in our personality. Assimilation is coming
in, and accommodation is making change.
We are a unique, and non-repeatable phenomenon.
A. Implicit theories of personality – our own “naïve” notions of personality as
a person’s temperament, social attractiveness, or otherwise or one has “no
personality”. Implicit theories are not grounded in careful observation, limit
what qualifies as personality, and imply that some people “have” and others
“do not have” a personality.
We need to fulfill each other’s interests, Hobbs called this the “social
contract”. We do this out of necessity. We become sensitized to ourselves
We can put our personalities into others by talking to them.
Origins: Term personality derived from “persona” meaning masks.
We can put on the mask of any personality, and as long as we have the
qualities that fit well within that mask, we can play it convincingly.
A. Derived from early Greek and Roman theatre – different masks mean
different, yet consistent personalities – consistent attitudes and behavior.
Joker, court jester, villain, they all act the part of their masks. The mask
that’s worn by the character has qualities that inform of whether the person
is benevolent, naïve, etc.
B. Personality means recognizable individual differences.
C. What influences these consistencies and differences? Heredity,
environment, or some combination of two. 20 thcent, personality is shaped
by culture and circumstance. 19 cent view is that it’s genetic. 3 people challenged, saying that culture shapes personality?
Freud, early childhood experiences is important for shaping a personality,
even though it is also genetic.
Humongulus, something that’s fully formed, and something that nearly
grows in size. You’re born with your personality.
Like begets like.
D. Scientific study of personality attempts to predict, control, and explain
Trying to determine the causes of differences in people.
Psychology is a behavioral, social science.
Concept of Personality – No universally agreed upon definition, yet there are
conceptions of personality. These are offered definitions by people:
Kluckhorn and Murray offered the following – Every person is in certain
Like all other people. In genetic similarity, we are common. We also
have cultural similarities, most times.
Like some other people.
Like no other person. We come up with our own uniqueness
There are universal phobias, like darkness, spiders, snakes, etc. There are
certain features we share in common. All humans have the capacity to learn
any language, provided they can hear it and imitate it, from the ages of 2-6.
Pervin (1989): Personality represents those characteristics of the person
that account for consistent patterns of behavior.
Allport (1961): Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual
of those psychophysical systems that determine characteristic thought and
behavior. Methods of Research 9/10/2012 10:28:00 AM
Anyone of a particular mask puts up a “mask” to display their personality.
We don’t share the same characteristics to the same degree, and
they don’t configure to others.
We like to say nature vs nurture
Traits are biologically influenced, from a weak to strong biological
Genotype is genetic endowment, your genetic information in ur
genes which may not emerge, and phenotype is the expressed
characteristic which is not only observed, but measured as well
(blue eyes, height, weight, etc)
If deviation is abrupt, we say “you’re not being yourself today”
Intra individual differences, the individual varies.
Science makes hypothesis from theories of personality
We try to control situations, and present ourselves in a given way
Concept of personality
We fear the unfamiliar; groups that are unfamiliar, the dark, etc
Xenophobia, fearing familiar others, such as other tribes, rituals, etc
Paleocortex (old) vs Neocortex (new)
Relates to Fight or flight, or = residence of the past
SPC, the paleo cortex is the old brain, and NE, the neocortex is new, in
terms of what part of the brain we use.
Just noticeable difference has to do with your awareness, attention.
PErvin characterizes personality as predictable. Personality represents those
consistent patterns of behavior
Allport: Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those
psychophysical systems that determine characteristic thought and behavior Analysis of Allport’s definition
Personality is dynamic, not static
It is organized and structured, not an accumulation of traits. Traits
are linked, which influence a particular behavior. A disorganized
personality is usually with an unhealthy person, vise versa.
It is a psychological concept within a physical entity-the body.
Physical changes brings about changes in psychology, in identity,
like gender identity, or going from small to bulked.
It is a causal force that influences thought and action. If we
consider ourselves as extroverts, it influences our experiences and
Definition and theory – serves four functions
1) to organize and provide clarity to observations
2) to explain causes so that prediction may occur
3) to provide understanding
4) to generate new ideas and research
A. Theoretical constructs: Linguistic-conceptual inventions that assist in
E.g., ego, anxiety, achievement motivation, internal-external locus of control
(is fate in your hands, or in the hands of other forces?), etc
Making things happen – self actualizing. Doing things yourself.
B. Functions of constructs: to tie together and organize relationships among
Evaluation of theory – uses the following criteria:
1) empirical validity: Is the theory supported by evidence from experimental
2) Parsimony: Does the theory provide a simple, concise account of the
3) Comprehensiveness: Is the theory broad in scope?
4) Coherence: Is the theory internally consistent and free of contradictions? 5) Testability: is the theory capable of generating testable hypothesis?
6) Usefulness: Can the theory be applied to practical problems? Behavioral
psychology is applied to education through learning theory and
psychotherapy. Cognitive theory is applied to practical problems,
understanding their thinking and learning in the classroom.
7) Acceptability: Is the theory generally accepted by scientists?
Scientific theories: are grounded in systematic observation, with the intent
of describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling aspects of the
phenomenon (personality) that is being investigated.
Systematic observation based on observation, not experience.
i. scientific study of individual differences
ii. It attempts to create theories which predict. The theories are subjected to
- For example, test anxiety may lead to poor test performance. Create high
test anxiety and observe subsequent performance decrement.
iii. when hypotheses are confirmed as in test anxiety and performance
decrement, a theory receives empirical support
iv. a theory is a conceptual device to organize, make sense of, and explain
ll. Building theories:
A. Inductive approaches start with numerous observations and note
recurrent consistencies of observed relationships. This leads to laws such as
the law of effect: Behavior followed by reward is strengthened and by
punishment is weakened.
Thorndike called reward, satisfiers, and punishment, annoyers when testing.
Most science is built on philosophy
Empirical research – gaining knowledge by means of direct or indirect
observations and experience.
B. Deductive approaches derive from observations and are inventions in the
form of hypothesis, which are tested and research may be replicated so as to determine the generalizability of the phenomenon. In the area of social
psychology, for example, it was noted that high anxiety produces greater
affiliation. Both anxiety and affiliation are constructs that can be
operationally defined to make the measurement of each variable possible.
For example, self-esteem is operationally defined as one’s responses to a
questionnaire that is related to the construct of self esteem under
A generalization applies to everyone but to no one in particular.
In research, we must define the variables in the question, and measure
C. Types of Laws in psychology
1) S-R LAWS attempt to summarize the relationship between stimulus
variables and response variables. S-R LAWS are causal statements that
specify that if the stimulus varies the response will vary because there is a
causal relationship between the two. Such laws allow prediction and control.
A variable that influences behavior.
- For example, high anxiety will lead to lower test performance. As anxiety is
manipulated so is test performance likely to change in systematic ways (see
Yerkes-Dodson Law on arousal and performance in complex and simple task
When at a low level of arousal, or high level, you’ll perform bad in a test, but
if your just mediocre in arousal, you’ll get high scores. In low arousal, you
don’t want to be there. Optimum arousal is just mediocre, and you think
clearly, can pay attention to the test, and have sufficient motivation.
The Yerkes-Dodson law is demonstrated through research in which you
manipulate human arousal and get scores in performance.
The S-R law; stimulus is deprivation and the resulting performance is speed
of learning. In animals, if there is enough deprivation of food, then learning
will be rapid. If deprivation is severe, then the animal will not perform very
well, if he’s not hungry, then he has no motivation to learn. Animals that
aren’t too much of either side can learn fast.
More in experimental investigation More in correlational investigation R-R LAW
2) R-R LAWS are non causal and attempt to examine the relationship
between variables that are correlational in nature. Again, test anxiety is
measured, as is test performance, and it is noted that there is a negative
correlation. As test anxiety increases, test performance decreases.
We just see if the two variables have a relationship.
R-R LAWS may be used to make predictions as S-R LAWS are used. In S-R
LAWS however, some aspect of the environment is manipulated to influence
the response outcome. In R-R LAWS this is not the case, nothing is
Personality: Chapter 2
Methods of Personality Research and Assessment
1. Basic Research Methods:
1) Correlation study: Galton in late 1800’s studies correlation between
intelligence scores for identical and fraternal twins.
2) Case Study: Freud in late 1800’s studies individual cases in
3) Experimental Method: Early 1900’s Pavlov studies the conditioned reflex.
A. Each researcher choose a type of researcher suitable to theory and goals
of research. No one method superior to other.
B. Case study suited for in-depth study of individual-a detailed qualitative
description of individual. A detailed qualitative description of individual.
Yields useful hypotheses about relationships among phenomena.
C. Correlational method suited for noting degree of relationship between two
variables: e.g., relationship between age and use of various psychological
READ CHART IN PG 95 D. Experimental method examines cause and effect: e.g., how amount of
viewing TV violence affects amount of aggressive behavior (pg 30 look at
E. Case study of aggression (pg 26-27) Correlation of aggression (pg 27 &
32, 33), Experimental study of viewing TV violence and aggression (pg 27,
Case study – clinical work
Naturalistic observation – used by social psychologists and the
study of species of animals
Cross-cultural comparison – the big 5 personality factors, are they
found in other cultures?
Longitudinal study – developmental psychology, usually with
children. A study overtime.
Correlation study 9/10/2012 10:28:00 AM
What is a case study, and what does it do? What are its limitations?
Do this on aggression especially. Correlation between viewing violent
programing and behaving aggressively.
Viewing the behavior in a more naturalistic setting is at home, observing. A
child’s life at home, playground, and classroom. Naturalistic observation is
observing in study without interference. We attempt to manipulate and
control the phenomenon and investigation. In an experiment, we move the
child into a specialized setting, like a lab, and show him a film of an adult
being aggressive, and see if he plays aggressively with toys.
Research is more qualitative research. As soon as we go into correlation, it
goes into quantitative research. We’re identifying variables.
In a correlational method, no attempt it made to interfere or control. It is to
compare a relationship. In an experimental, we do attempt to control or
In the experiment, we can specify a cause and effect relationship.
Random assignment means making a random pool of subjects, and putting
them into a control or experimental group with equal chance of placement
(usually, they choose). Independent variable in aggression is viewing violent
programing (experimental). We measure aggression of the experimental and
control group, and observe a difference. The difference must be significance.
A. Each researcher chooses a type of research suitable to theory and goals
of research. No method is superior than the other. All research makes a lot
of knowledge, and we see how strong the relationship is in a correlational
study; weak or strong relationship. We use statistics to determine this. The
direction of the relationship is also noted. Ex. As the violent programming
increases, violent acts increase. This is a positive correlation.
Shoe size and academic performance have no relationship. B. Case study suited for in-depth study of individual, a detailed qualitative
description of individual. Yields useful hypothesis about relationships. This is
good for personality assessment.
Methods of study in Psychology
1. Observational methods
Collecting information about behavior without trying to change it
Non Participant observation
o E.g studying children through a one way mirror
o E.g studying recruit behavior in boot camp by going through it
yourself. Problem with this is that you have no in depth
research with the men, and you’re at risk with having more
bias with the subjects your observing. You might modify their
behavior by your interactions, when you should not be
interfering with it. They also modify your behavior.
Non participant observation gives you more pure data, and
2. Survey Methods
Collecting information about behavior through questionnaires and surveys
E.g. the famous Kinsey Report on sexual behavior. Man began to
publish research of sexuality studies. He began in 1940.
Master and Johnson on the human sexual response, influenced from
3. Case Study Methods
In depth study of one individual
E.g studying the behavior of a client in therapy.
4. Correlational methods
Determining the degree of relationship between variables.
E.g, investigating the relationship between the number of hours
adolescents view TV and their grades in school. 5. Experimental Methods
Manipulating one or more variables to determine the effect on some
behavior e.g, studying the effect of vitamin B12 deprivation on maze
learning in rats.
I. Observational Methods in psychology
A. Naturalistic observation involved watching behaviors as they occur
1. Observer bias may occur with this method. You can look towards a child’s
cousin, friends, parents, etc. This is all part of naturalistic observation.
Ethology is the study of the natural behavior in the environment. Critical
period and imprinting is two main aspects in this. This in relation to
aggression, imprinting, chicks will follow the first thing they see moving. In
critical period, they’ll be more aggressive in certain periods of their life.
Kin selection hypothesis. As a mother, if you make sure one shares genes in
common, and help them til reproducing, then you make sure your genes
continue on by altruism by helping the offspring out.
2. Behaviors may not occur when you are watching.
3. The behaviors that the observer wants to watch may not occur when
4. The method of naturalistic observation doesn’t help explain behaviors,
only describe them.
B. Surveys are a means of collecting observations from a large number of
subjects by interview or questionnaire. Large amount of subjects are
interviewed. Covariance – variables are interrelated. Demographics.
1. Surveys ask a sample of respondents the same question or set of
2. Surveys can provide a general data base
3. The size and representativeness of the sample is critical.
C. A case history provides in depth information on one or a few persons
studied over a long period of time.
1. It examines a wide range of variables. 2. It is usually retrospective. We move into the individuals past, and gather
information in relation to the individual and his/her past. In response to
questions, he/she goes into retrospect (their past) to answer questions.
3. Interviews and/or tests may be used to gather data.
4. Its major advantage is that it provides much detail
5. Its chief disadvantage is that it may be difficult to generalize case study
findings. Those generalizations may have more solidity and may not be
Another word for instincts is species specific behavior.
Stereotyping is common “I guess this is what a 5 year old behaves like. I
guess they’re all like that”
II. Correlational Methods in Psychology
A. Correlation is a statistical procedure that can be used to assess the nature
and degree to which sets of observations are lawfully related.
1. The difficult part of this study is devising acceptable operational
definitions for the responses.
2. Two sets of data must then be collected.
3. A correlation coefficient may range from -1.00 to +1.00
A. A positive correlation means that high scores on one measure are related
to high scores on the other or vice versa
B. a negative number means that high scores on one response are related to
low scores on the other.
C. Zero correlations indicate the two set of observations are not related to
D. as correlations approach zero, predictability decreases.
If the relationship between two variables is strong, then it’s certain that one
variable stands on the other.
E. The closer to +1.00 or -1.00, the stronger the relationship.
F. Cause-effect conclusions are inappropriate for correlational studies.
G. Even when two responses are highly correlated with each other,
predictions cannot be made for individual cases. If we know that watching a good amount of TV effects scholastic performance, it can’t be tied to an
individual, it must be applied to everyone.
Survey’s acclimatizes you to the chapter in a matter of seconds, in a novel.
SQ3R’s Method. Do this when studying.
III. Experimental Methods in Psychology
A. Experimental methods involve a set of operations that investigate
relationships between controlled and manipulated events.
1. Independent variables are the conditions the experimenter manipulates
2. Dependent variables are measured by the experimenter and depend on
the manipulation of the independent variable.
3. Extraneous variables are all other variables that might influence the
Anatomy of an experiment
Possible subjects (population) – Random assignment (sample)
Randomly assigned to one of two conditions (controls for subject
Experimental group – view violent tv programs
Control group – view non-violent tv programs (independent variable) –
Controls extraneous variables
Behavior test scores – Help or hurt button.
Independent variable – tv programs children watched.
Dependent variable – aggressive play from children Consult pg 34 in Ch 2 for correlation examples.
Personality CH 3
1. Psychoanalysis refers to procedures for changing personality based on a
comprehensive theory of personality and a related approach to research.
Freud was the originator of psychoanalysis, and his ideas dominate the
Psychoanalytic strategy. Freud wasn’t a psychiatrist or a psychologist, by
training, he was a medical doctor who specialized in neurology. He moved
into psychiatric and psychological areas via training and neurology.
J Breuer 1880’s, implied psychoanalytic treatment, 15 years before Freud
entered the scene. He was the first person who did this form of treatment.
He was greatly influenced by the success of Anna O who was treated. Freud
and Breuer were good friends and colleagues.
Breuer made the Cathartic method. Catharsis is the process of releasing and
providing relief from strong or repressed emotion. It has to do with
emotional release, strong repressed emotions. Catharsis has to do with the
release of strong emotion, that may have been repressed, that is blocked
from expression, and in the subconscious. The memory of the event (it’s
painful) and the emotion associated with that event is expressed in this
treatment. You can repress the event, but still remember the emotion.
The memory and the emotion coincide, but they also dissociate, where the
memory is repressed, and you experience the emotion, or vice versa, or
both can be repressed. One can have a catharsis and a release, but won’t
remember the memory.
Breuer was able to get Anna O to have a catharsis, and recall the event
repressed. He discovered that repression of the emotion and memory are
very stubborn. Neither are able to be easily released. He asked her
questions, and induced a hypnosis and went to an auto hypnotic trance, and
recalled certain events that were repressed, and when through an emotional
catharsis released. She then felt an enormous sense of relief and calm. Hypocretes said - The body influences the mind, and vice versa. 4 major
humors, which determined 4 majors types. Physical influence is
Anna O was diagnosed as hysterical, and showed a high amount of
problems; lapses of memory, sensory and motor control, mute state, etc.
Once her catharsis was done, her symptoms started disappearing.
She chimney sweeped her subconscious, after having hysteria, and saying
that Breuer was gonna have a baby (she believed she was pregnant).
The more she expressed in a catharsis, the better she became. She went on
to be a very influential woman
2. Signmund freud was te first to popularize the psychotherapy treatment.
3. Freud conceptualized the framework of the mind in two ways: functions of
personality (id, ego, superego) and levels of awareness (unconscious,
preconscious, and conscious).
4. Psychoanalytic psychology theories fall into five broad camps: Classical
Freudians (who follow Freud to the letter), revisionist stage theorists (like
Erik Erikson), motivational psychologists (Murray White, and more), ego
psychologists (more focused on the id), and object relations theorists
(Melanie Kline and Maller). CH 4: Origins of Development of Personality 9/10/2012 10:28:00 AM
Personality CH 3
Psychodynamic. From Freud.
1. Psychoanalysis refers to procedures for changing personality based on a
comprehensive theory of personality and a related approach to research.
Freud was the originator of psychoanalysis, and his ideas dominate the
Psychoanalytic looks at personality as a whole. It is a comprehensive theory
of personality. Freud divided the mind into 3 parts, conscious, preconscious,
subconscious, and personality into id, ego, superego. Freud was primarily
interested into subconscious, and how it influences behavior and personality
expressions. He was interested in all 3 parts of personality. Conflicts can be
stressful to the individual, and can emerge as symptoms in personality
disorders. Ego represents the rational, superego is conscience, id is primal.
Superego is shaped within an individual by experience and other parents of
authority that raised one. It is also based on the internalization of the values
that he has learned.
Piaget Stages –
1. Sensory motor stage, individual has no motor skills, and experiences
everything from their senses. Comes to understand the world through
senses and objects in the environment. Doesn’t absorb values.
2. Preoperational stage – starting to note certain relationships. Corresponds
to the oral stage.
3. Phallic stage – Freud. Inspired by classical literature.
Been considerable revision to his psychoanalytical visions. Neo-Freudians.
Freud’s daughter, Anna, was much more orthodox in her methods, and tried
to reserve he fathers legacy. Object relation refers to the mental construct in
regards to other people, and the feelings we have for them.
2. Sigmund Freud born on May 6, 1856, wrote 21 books and remains the
most cited and probably most influential. Superego is considered the
conscience of a persons personality. 3. Freud conceptualized the framework of the mind in two ways: functions of
personality (id, ego, superego) and levels of awareness (unconscious,
preconscious, and conscious)
People had built tension, and have to use fantasy and day dream to ease the
tension, to keep them from going crazy.
4. Psych theorists fall into 5 broad camps: Freudians, revisionist stage
theorists, motivational psychologists, ego psychologists, and object relations
5. Psychoanalytic theory posits that inborn forces or drive, direct our
thoughts and behavior. Unsatisfied drives result in tension, relieved only
when the drive is expressed.
6. The two classes of drives that Freud identified as motivating virtually all
human behavior are the self preservative and sexual drives.
7. Classification of the sex drive (libido) as the fundamental drive created
much disagreement among post-Freudians, including Carl Jung and Alfred
Adler. Sense of superiority means that one feels he has control over his life.
Carl Jung believes there is more than just a sex drive that we have. Freud
was more of a biological determinist, with innate lusts which drives behavior
8. Ego psychology is concerned with how the ego copes adaptively with
reality through perception, cognition, language, creative production,
attention, and memory. Ego is the cognitive and rational aspect of
personality. Id strives for pleasure. Ego is governed by the reality principal.
Freud believes that with civilization, comes content. Civilization brings
repression, control, regulation. With civilization, comes repression. In order
for people to be in social order, they’d have to submit to it, and its laws. 9. Object relation theorists believe that people are primarily driven by social
needs rather than basic instinctual drives.
10. Psychoanalytic personality assessment uses indirect methods because
personality is presumed to operate primarily at an unconscious level beyond
the awareness of the individual.
11. Case Studies, usually of patients in psychoanalysis, are the primary
research tool of this strategy. Case studies continue to provide the major
source of evidence for psychoanalytic personality theory, although other
research methods are now also being applied to psychoanalytic theories.
12. Most psychoanalysts are practicing psychotherapists. Psychoanalysts is
usually a long process during which the patient is made aware of the
underlying, often unconscious determinants of his or her behavior and
13. Modern psychoanalysis has placed increasing emphasis on social
relations, lifelong normal personality development, conscious motives, and
scientific research methods.
Symptoms, verbal and non verbal manners. You can use drawings as a way
to get subconscious material.
Alfred Adler – 115
125 motivational psych
object relational psych – Melanie Kline 126, fairbear 128, Margaret maller
Dramatic apparitions test pg 85, 118 (mclinen uses TIT to achieve the
Pg 95 (another test) – defense mechanism chart – pg 92 shows what
projection, etc is pg152-154 the rorshach test – projective test – projecting their memories
and images into the test to describe. The individual is describing subjective
material, subconscious material.
Relate personality theories to the 6 definitions on front page handed out.
1. All of Freud’s theories are characterized by four basic principles:
the dynamic flow of psychic energy in a closed system is
responsible for human motivation
all behavior is caused by internal forces
there are three structures and functions of personality-the id, ego,
and superego – that are always in conflict
early childhood development determines adult personality, which
progresses through a series of specific stages.
2. Freud divided the mind into three levels of awareness: conscious,
preconscious, and unconscious. Personality functioning is dominated by the
unconscious. Personality functioning is dominated by the unconscious
3. Jung proposed an alternative division: conscious ego, personal
unconscious, and collective unconscious. Jung emphasized the influence of
the collective unconscious, which contains archetypes that are universal
predispositions to think and act in common ways.
4. Freud divided personality according to three basic organizational
structures. The id concerned with pleasure seeking and is the reservoir of
biological drives. It operates through the pleasure principle, which requires
immediate gratification of needs. This gratification is accomplished through
primary process, in which memory images of goals are formed.
5. The ego is the rational aspect of personality and operates according to the
reality principle – the gratification of needs is delayed until an appropriate
actual goal can be obtained. This delay of gratification is accomplished
through secondary process, which involves problem solving and other
intellectual functions. 6. The superego is the moral aspect of personality. It is the internal
representative of the values of society and guides the individual toward
7. The ego serves as a mediator among the pleasure demands of the id, the
moral structures of the superego and the requirements and limitations of the
real world. Intrapsychic conflicts among the id, ego, and superego play a
major role in determining one’s personality.
8. Freud believed that anxiety is a signal of impending danger. He
distinguished three types: neurotic anxiety (from an id-ego conflict), moral
anxiety or guilt (from an id-superego conflict) and objective anxiety (from
actual external dangers)
9. Unconscious ego defense mechanisms keep people from being
overwhelmed by unacceptable impulses that are the basis for neurotic and
moral anxiety. Repression, in which unacceptable impulses are totally
excluded from one’s consciousness, is the most fundamental defense
mechanism. Other defense mechanisms include denial, regression, undoing,
reaction formation, defensive projection, displacement, rationalization,
defensive identification, projective identification, and sublimation. Of these,
only sublimation is considered a wholly successful defense mechanism.
10. Freud described four basic stages of psychosexual development. The
stages are named after the erogenous zones that predominate at various
ages; oral, anal, phallic, and genital. At each stage, one erogenous zone is
the focus of libido (sexual energy). Each stage has a conflict that must be
successfully resolved to proceed to the next stage. When people have
difficulty moving to the next stage (because of frustration or overindulgence
in the present stage), they leave more libido fixated at the earlier stage.
Fixation results in adult character types.
11. In the oral stage (the first year of life), pleasure is derived from the
mouth, from sucking, eating, and biting. The conflict is weaning. The oral
character centers on dependency. Post-Freudians have broadened Freud’s
theoretical ideas about the oral stage to focus on its social aspects. 12.In the anal stage (second and third years), pleasure is derived from the
retention and expulsion of feces. Toilet training is the conflict. The anal
character involves three basic traits: orderliness, stinginess, and obstinacy.
13. In the phallic stage (ages 4 and 5), pleasure focuses in the genital
region. The Oedipus complex, the conflict in the phallic stage, involves the
child’s sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent.
CH 4: Origins and development of personality
I. Drives and libido:
A. A drive is an inborn, intrapsychic force that produces tension which must
B. There are 3 drives:
Self-preservative for survival
Sexual that deals with physical and psychological pleasure through
thoughts, ideas, images, actions – called libido.
Aggressive or death drive or instinct that opposes the life-self-
preservative or libidinal forces. CH 8 9/10/2012 10:28:00 AM
1. Characteristics of d