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June 6th Lecture.docx

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York University
PSYC 2130
Krista Phillips

Lecture 9 Outline  One of the biggest differences between humans and other species is that human have the longest time of Neoteny (the dependency of children to their parents). o During this time of dependency parents teach of their children socialization.  Some of psychology is one way or another concerned with learning o Even clinicians have to admit that psychological functions that are affected in time one will affect psychological functioning in the future at time two 1. Central Position of Behaviour Perspectives on Personality  All personality psychologists begin psychology by looking at the behaviours.  The trait theorist look at responses people make on questionnaires which are then taken ands interpreted as signs the underline trait 2. General Characteristics of Behavioural Theories  The behaviour perspective is concerned with behaviour with its own sake o They use observation of behavioural not a sign of other things but as samples. o The best predictor of future behaviour is the pass behaviour. o Overt behaviour behaviours that can be observed directly o Covert behaviour behaviours that cannot be observed directly.  Freudian/neo-FreudianCovert behaviour is always used to explain overt behaviour where as behaviourist use overt behaviours  For a behaviourist personality consists of the persons learned tendencies they learned throughout life 3. Classical Conditioning  Overview of principles o PavlovA reflexes can be associated with a new condition  The responses Pavlov conditioned are reflexes (they are automatic and subjected to the environment)  Temporal contiguity and repetition o The accusation and retention of that relationship depends on two very important things the unconditioned stimulus needs to happen together close in time (Temporal Contiguity) and you have to repeat it in many conditions (Repetition). o The conditioned responses take longer to illicit and the conditioned responses is weaker, the conditioned response is not as predictable as the unconditioned response.  Stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination o Once you condition an animal you can get the same response to something similar. o J.P Watson “ Give me a dozen infants, well-formed, and my own specific world to bring them up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to becomes any type of specialist, I might select doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant and yes, even beggar-man, and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors.” Little Albert Experiment  Classical conditioning explanation of personal likes/dislikes and attitudes (Razran study) o Our likes, dislikes and even stereotypes can be classically conditioned. o Razran: Attitudes toward political slogans 3 conditions: Free Lunch (highest ratings), Noxious Odour, and Neutral. He found that students who had the free lunch scored higher to political slogans than people in the Noxious Odour condition and Neutral condition. Three week later everyone was put into the same neutral condition and found that the people who were free lunch condition previously still
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