Lecture 9 Outline
One of the biggest differences between humans and other species is that human have the
longest time of Neoteny (the dependency of children to their parents).
o During this time of dependency parents teach of their children socialization.
Some of psychology is one way or another concerned with learning
o Even clinicians have to admit that psychological functions that are affected in
time one will affect psychological functioning in the future at time two
1. Central Position of Behaviour Perspectives on Personality
All personality psychologists begin psychology by looking at the behaviours.
The trait theorist look at responses people make on questionnaires which are then taken
ands interpreted as signs the underline trait
2. General Characteristics of Behavioural Theories
The behaviour perspective is concerned with behaviour with its own sake
o They use observation of behavioural not a sign of other things but as samples.
o The best predictor of future behaviour is the pass behaviour.
o Overt behaviour behaviours that can be observed directly
o Covert behaviour behaviours that cannot be observed directly.
Freudian/neo-FreudianCovert behaviour is always used to explain overt behaviour
where as behaviourist use overt behaviours
For a behaviourist personality consists of the persons learned tendencies they learned
3. Classical Conditioning
Overview of principles
o PavlovA reflexes can be associated with a new condition
The responses Pavlov conditioned are reflexes (they are automatic and
subjected to the environment)
Temporal contiguity and repetition
o The accusation and retention of that relationship depends on two very important
things the unconditioned stimulus needs to happen together close in time
(Temporal Contiguity) and you have to repeat it in many conditions (Repetition).
o The conditioned responses take longer to illicit and the conditioned responses is
weaker, the conditioned response is not as predictable as the unconditioned
Stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination
o Once you condition an animal you can get the same response to something
o J.P Watson “ Give me a dozen infants, well-formed, and my own specific world
to bring them up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to
becomes any type of specialist, I might select doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant and
yes, even beggar-man, and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies,
abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors.” Little Albert Experiment
Classical conditioning explanation of personal likes/dislikes and attitudes (Razran study) o Our likes, dislikes and even stereotypes can be classically conditioned.
o Razran: Attitudes toward political slogans 3 conditions: Free Lunch (highest
ratings), Noxious Odour, and Neutral. He found that students who had the free
lunch scored higher to political slogans than people in the Noxious Odour
condition and Neutral condition. Three week later everyone was put into the same
neutral condition and found that the people who were free lunch condition