send June12th notes to her
Final Exam June 21 room 0006 ACW
80 multiple choice 16 items from each chapter and 16 items from lecture.
One bonus on the back of the test indicate the question on that page Citizen Kain
There is no stats
Don’t need to know dates
Stuff on the Razin study
Easier to comprehend
Names need to know: Rogers, Wudlt, Kelly, Triandance, Skinner, Thorndike
experiment, Maslow, Roddick, Dollard and Miller, Locke, Bandura
Questions about goals.
No questions on the goals circumplex model. Stuff on emotion from that chapter
Social learning theory
Problems with behaviourism
Nothing on comparison between psychoanalytic theory and behaviourism.
1. Carl Rogers gave us client-centered psychotherapy. Most social work theory is based on
Rogers. One of the very first to speak out against psychoanalysis, he argued that psychoanalysis
is unethical it can hurt people and the only thing that is met through psychoanalysis is meeting to
egotist goals of the psychoanalytic community. He had problems with the structure of
psychoanalysis because it creates a power imbalance between the client-therapist relationship.
He said the only thing that is achieved in psychotherapy is meeting the needs of the elitist
o His intentions were to do Religious work in New York, serving as a priest. He
became very disenchanted with a the unilateral presentation of idea – where one
person told people how things are and no contribution from other; learning model
where one person teaches people. What he did while there was petition for a true
seminar where instructors and students engaged in meaningful dialogue; and to
consider the value of teachers and students engaging in meaningful dialogue, and
his petition was granted
This made him leave religious work and go to Columbia University
o Worked as a clinician mainly with delinquent children
o Best know for his book Client Centred Therapy in this book he layed out the
theory that underlined his whole view of human nature and his whole approach to
understanding human relationship.
2. The Primacy of Subjective Experience
Starts and ends with the subject experience with the individual the persons
individualized subject experience is the ultimate authority.
For Rogers, our subjective experience of reality serves as the basis for everything we do. Behaviouralist said that if you want to understand the person you must understand them
from the outside, but for Rogers, if you want to understand people you have to look at
inside the head.
Inner experience refers to anything that happens to the person at a particular moment.
o Conscious experience (experiences that we are aware of, that we can verbalized)
and Unconscious experience (experiences outside awareness) = phenomenal field
o Fancy name for subjective experience
He did not ignore all of Freud’s idea and that some behaviour is due to unconscious
o He saw the importance of the unconscious and that some behaviour is
3. Definition of “Mental Health”
First to emphasis the definition of mental health in his generation.
o Before Rogers there was a focus on pathological behaviour – what can and can’t
go wrong in personality.
o Roger’s had a problem with the fact that psychology did not have working
definition of mental health
There is no standard for normal functioning in psychology
Rogers said that mentally health person are persons who can symbolize their experience
accurately and completely
o Mentally unhealthy person is someone who distorts their experiences, the person
who represses their experiences or the person who is unable to surrender their
experience, a person who is unable to symbolize their experiences.
What is the relationship between how I see the world and objective world of how it is?
4. Characteristics of Self-Actualization
Definition internal motivation towards enhancement
SELF-ACTUALIZATION theoretical statement on motivation.
1. Active it drives the organism’s behaviour, emotions and thoughts.
2. Selective and Directional its directional in the sense that it moves the organism towards
growth to seek new experiences; it is a constructive tendencies, its good for you. People are
moving towards something good, towards growth. Constructive tendencies; something good.
3. Psychological and Biological Component Biological includes all of those of drives that are
aimed at survival. Maslow was the very first graduate of the Harry Harlem; this is where most if
important processes on bonding. Psychological aspects involves the development of potential
that make us better people. The underline idea of this is people are basically good this is a very
optimistic view of human nature.
4. Innate its wired in. He said even little baby experiences are perceive their world as reality
and even they possess organismic valuing tendency we perceive experiences as good (helps towards self actualization) or bad (does not help with reaching self actualization). Humans
evaluate their experiences as good or bad; he said that this is present at birth and that we should
trust the person’s wisdom. People have a built in mechanism that allows them to know what is
good for us.
5. The True vs. the Social Self
Need for positive regard – we want other people to think well of us. That need for
positive regard can become stronger than our organismic valuing tendency.
Conditions of worth – e.g. “I’ll love you as long as you get A’s” Most human
relationships are of conditions of worth.
Unconditional positive regard – Rogers argue the ideal condition of healthy positive
regard is unconditional positive regard. This is a example of “I love you no mater what”
Deep caring from another person without any judgment. According to Rogers, your self
concepts as it develops will carry no conditions of worth.
True Self and the Social Self
Social Self set of personality characteristic that you acquire that comes from other
people. We begin to view ourselves on how other people see you and evaluate you. The
reason why rely on the impression of other peoples is because human have the strong
need for positive regard. Things go wrong in personality when that need of positive
regard overwhelms your own organism tendencies; what is good for you.
o This miss match between the social self and true self can cause
o Unconditional positive regard “I love you no mater what” a deep caring for
another person that isn’t contaminated with judgment.
True Self set of personality characteristic about how we really feel about our true self.
6. The Fully Functioning Person if a person we do the right things and allow personality to
develop, we can eventually reach fully functioning.
They are open to experience
They are characterized by existential living existential living = to live in the here and
They demonstrate trust in the self and profound distrust in external authority
They are creative they create products that they care about.
They are honest and open
They indifferent to material comforts and rewards
They are always in process acknowledgement that change is going to happen and that
we should embrace these changes. People expect change to characterize their lives.
7. Implications for Psychotherapy
What is he doing and is it working
o He's letting her come to her own conclusion
o He's very patient
o She has complete control and even when she begged him to take control he never
surcome to her.
o He is paraphrasing back to her active listening o Client centred therapy. Its focused on the here and now.
o Very non-directive you won’t get counselling
o He allowed her to look inward
o He created a non threatening environment they focused on the here and now
o He accepts everything you has to say without any evaluation
o Roger’s argued that this kind of therapy should establish conditions where were
the client takes responsibility to their own lives. He said there is three ingredients
Empathy the therapist attempts to see the client own internal fram