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June 13th Lecture.docx

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York University
PSYC 2130
Krista Phillips

Lecture Outline [email protected] send June12th notes to her Final Exam June 21 room 0006 ACW  80 multiple choice 16 items from each chapter and 16 items from lecture.  One bonus on the back of the test indicate the question on that page Citizen Kain  Same format  There is no stats  Don’t need to know dates  Stuff on the Razin study  Easier to comprehend  Names need to know: Rogers, Wudlt, Kelly, Triandance, Skinner, Thorndike experiment, Maslow, Roddick, Dollard and Miller, Locke, Bandura  Questions about goals.  No questions on the goals circumplex model. Stuff on emotion from that chapter  Social learning theory  Contributions to  Problems with behaviourism  Nothing on comparison between psychoanalytic theory and behaviourism. 1. Carl Rogers gave us client-centered psychotherapy. Most social work theory is based on Rogers. One of the very first to speak out against psychoanalysis, he argued that psychoanalysis is unethical it can hurt people and the only thing that is met through psychoanalysis is meeting to egotist goals of the psychoanalytic community. He had problems with the structure of psychoanalysis because it creates a power imbalance between the client-therapist relationship. He said the only thing that is achieved in psychotherapy is meeting the needs of the elitist psychologist  Biographical information o His intentions were to do Religious work in New York, serving as a priest. He became very disenchanted with a the unilateral presentation of idea – where one person told people how things are and no contribution from other; learning model where one person teaches people. What he did while there was petition for a true seminar where instructors and students engaged in meaningful dialogue; and to consider the value of teachers and students engaging in meaningful dialogue, and his petition was granted  This made him leave religious work and go to Columbia University o Worked as a clinician mainly with delinquent children o Best know for his book Client Centred Therapy in this book he layed out the theory that underlined his whole view of human nature and his whole approach to understanding human relationship. 2. The Primacy of Subjective Experience  Starts and ends with the subject experience with the individual the persons individualized subject experience is the ultimate authority.  For Rogers, our subjective experience of reality serves as the basis for everything we do.  Behaviouralist said that if you want to understand the person you must understand them from the outside, but for Rogers, if you want to understand people you have to look at inside the head.  Inner experience refers to anything that happens to the person at a particular moment. o Conscious experience (experiences that we are aware of, that we can verbalized) and Unconscious experience (experiences outside awareness) = phenomenal field o Fancy name for subjective experience  He did not ignore all of Freud’s idea and that some behaviour is due to unconscious o He saw the importance of the unconscious and that some behaviour is unconsciously motivated. 3. Definition of “Mental Health”  First to emphasis the definition of mental health in his generation. o Before Rogers there was a focus on pathological behaviour – what can and can’t go wrong in personality. o Roger’s had a problem with the fact that psychology did not have working definition of mental health  There is no standard for normal functioning in psychology  Rogers said that mentally health person are persons who can symbolize their experience accurately and completely o Mentally unhealthy person is someone who distorts their experiences, the person who represses their experiences or the person who is unable to surrender their experience, a person who is unable to symbolize their experiences.  What is the relationship between how I see the world and objective world of how it is? 4. Characteristics of Self-Actualization  Definition internal motivation towards enhancement  Characteristics SELF-ACTUALIZATION theoretical statement on motivation. 1. Active it drives the organism’s behaviour, emotions and thoughts. 2. Selective and Directional its directional in the sense that it moves the organism towards growth to seek new experiences; it is a constructive tendencies, its good for you. People are moving towards something good, towards growth. Constructive tendencies; something good.  Faulty 3. Psychological and Biological Component Biological includes all of those of drives that are aimed at survival. Maslow was the very first graduate of the Harry Harlem; this is where most if important processes on bonding. Psychological aspects involves the development of potential that make us better people. The underline idea of this is people are basically good this is a very optimistic view of human nature. 4. Innate its wired in. He said even little baby experiences are perceive their world as reality and even they possess organismic valuing tendency we perceive experiences as good (helps towards self actualization) or bad (does not help with reaching self actualization). Humans evaluate their experiences as good or bad; he said that this is present at birth and that we should trust the person’s wisdom. People have a built in mechanism that allows them to know what is good for us. 5. The True vs. the Social Self  Need for positive regard – we want other people to think well of us. That need for positive regard can become stronger than our organismic valuing tendency.  Conditions of worth – e.g. “I’ll love you as long as you get A’s” Most human relationships are of conditions of worth.  Unconditional positive regard – Rogers argue the ideal condition of healthy positive regard is unconditional positive regard. This is a example of “I love you no mater what” Deep caring from another person without any judgment. According to Rogers, your self concepts as it develops will carry no conditions of worth. True Self and the Social Self  Social Self set of personality characteristic that you acquire that comes from other people. We begin to view ourselves on how other people see you and evaluate you. The reason why rely on the impression of other peoples is because human have the strong need for positive regard. Things go wrong in personality when that need of positive regard overwhelms your own organism tendencies; what is good for you. o This miss match between the social self and true self can cause o Unconditional positive regard “I love you no mater what” a deep caring for another person that isn’t contaminated with judgment.  True Self set of personality characteristic about how we really feel about our true self. 6. The Fully Functioning Person if a person we do the right things and allow personality to develop, we can eventually reach fully functioning.  They are open to experience  They are characterized by existential living existential living = to live in the here and now (present)  They demonstrate trust in the self and profound distrust in external authority  They are creative they create products that they care about.  They are honest and open  They indifferent to material comforts and rewards  They are always in process acknowledgement that change is going to happen and that we should embrace these changes. People expect change to characterize their lives. 7. Implications for Psychotherapy  Film  What is he doing and is it working o He's letting her come to her own conclusion o He's very patient o She has complete control and even when she begged him to take control he never surcome to her. o He is paraphrasing back to her active listening o Client centred therapy. Its focused on the here and now. o Very non-directive you won’t get counselling o He allowed her to look inward o He created a non threatening environment they focused on the here and now o He accepts everything you has to say without any evaluation o Roger’s argued that this kind of therapy should establish conditions where were the client takes responsibility to their own lives. He said there is three ingredients  Empathy the therapist attempts to see the client own internal fram
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