Lecture 3 Outline
1. Psychoanalytic Theory: Historical overview
C. Rogers he believed in a humanistic approach. He gave us client centered therapy
Who does a psychoanalytic look like you go and lay down on the couch and the
analysts is usually behind you were you cant see them
o Rogers believes this creates a unequally power balance. He say the only thing it
services is meeting the need on the elitist in the Freudian community
o Now a day the psychoanalytist would ask you just to talktechnique of free
o He developed client centred therapy in a reaction to dissatisfaction of Freud’s
therapy. He said Freud’s therapy could damage people and puts people at a
disadvantage because you cant interact with the therapist and they were passive
o He argues that the only purpose served in psychotherapy is the elitist needs of the
psychotherapist are met.
Wolpehe the father of behaviour therapy. He had a problem with psychoanalytic and
says it simply takes to long. People would go to therapy three to four times over a period
o He believed there was a more efficient way to analysis patients behaviours and
then to formulate a
Freud his most valued contribution to psychology is the principle of psychic
determinism and the principle of unconscious motivation.
o Freud’s theory of personality serves is a way that all good theories should. His
model served to allow a great deal of improvements.
o He are contribution to bother abnormal and personality psychology
2. Principle of Unconscious Motivation
This was based on Freud’s observation that certain mental event were simply more
available to us.
o People behave in way for reasons that they are unaware of.
Freud found that unconscious material is the most powerful influence on behaviour
o There is truth to that there are other reasons beyond our own knowledge to why
we do something
Freud was really interested in thoughts that were underground (unconscious) that
reappear latter in life mainly as a result of work he did with a colleague of his Breuer.
Breuer with him, Freud became interested in hypnosis and hysteria
o Hysteria had a significant meaning in psychology, hysterical people who came in
with physical disorders; people who had mental disorders but had not physical
o Women and other were thought to be pretending (malingering) their symptoms
Freud understood that there was more to the behaviour and didn’t see them as
malingering mainly because of this work with Charcot
Charcot taught Freud how to hypnosis his patients and included it in his practice to treat
his patients o His experience with hypnosis that these women subjectively suffered from their
Breuer told Freud about a hysteric women who was cured with hypnosis
o Freud got the idea that just talking about the symptoms makes them go away.
Bernheim he work with individuals with amnesia; he showed Freud that you can make
individual remember things without hypnotizing and that you can just urge people to
Now a day the psychoanalyst would ask you just to talktechnique of free association
(the essences of psychoanalysis). Freud used an inferential method known as free
association in order to gain access to material not seen.
o Listening to conscious reports to reveal what the unconscious is trying to say
o Inferential methodalogn
Discoveries Freud made with technique of free association:
o First thing that was revealed to him was the relationship between the patient’s
symptoms and causes/pathogenic ideas that were present in his patient were not
simple. He noticed that there is a whole series of symptoms associated with
behaviour. He called this principle overdetermination
o Another important discovery was the finding that what’s in the unconscious
resists; holding a mental block against remembering or accepting some events or
ideas. He called this resistance to the free association technique.
What this taught Freud is that on the one hand patients symptoms creates
real psychology discomforts for them but on the other hand their
resistance undermines psychotherapy progress and therapy. Individuals do
this to protect themselves from pain.
3. Principle of Psychic Determinism
The principle of psychic determinism is all behaviour including overt vs. covert, are
cause by pre seeding mental event/ are a result of previous psychology events. Within
Freud’s model these events have a casual power in of themselves, in that they can
o According to Freud there is a re-seeding mental event
Psychological events have causal power in and out of themselves
Freud’s first publication he tried to talk about the neurological bases of behaviour but the
science behind it had not developed yet
***Psycho pathology of everyday life buy this book
o You find examples of normal and psychopathological individuals that follows the
principle of psychic determinism.
Freud observed behaviour that regardless of its nature were cause by other mental process
and when they have a description of their behaviour they were disconnected to that
Model of the Mind: the Id, the Ego, and superego are always in conflict with each other an can
never be happy. Superego
4. Psychosexual Stages one of the most controversial contributions made by Freud to
psychology. Get gave us each stage is characterized a place where pleasure is derived from and
each stage is characterized by conflict. The importance of stages lays in Freud’s idea of fixation
Concept of fixation
o As we leave each stage we leave a certain amount of libido.
o Sometimes people have a traumatic experience during one of these stages the
libido gets tied up in this stages and leaves less energy for normal adult function
Primary erogenous zones
The oral stage during the first year of life, according to Freud the mouth is the most
central. The conflict in this stage is the weaning conflict, the harder it is to wean the child
off the bottle, the more fixation the libido is on this stage
o Oral eroticism, oral sadism
These are the two stages within this stage
Oral erotic stage is characterized by the pure pleasure of sucking and
taking things in through the mouth. Double touch babies sucking on
their own hand when the mother isn’t around. When the breast is not