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PSYC 2130 (210)

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PSYC 2130
Krista A Phillips

Lecture Notes Personality Assessment ▯ ▯ Candidacy for Psychotherapy - Deciphering if the patient is a good candidate for psychotherapy. ▯ Personality assessments are most strongly related to theoretical orientation of the patient. Beliefs and perspective alters the assessment the most.▯ ▯ Personality tests vary according to 3 important dimensions.▯ -Function▯ -Level of structure▯ -Construct ▯ Theoretical/Rational approach to test construction - Look into current professional opinions before concluding. ▯ ▯ Psychometric/Empirical tests ▯ ▯ Rorschach Test▯ Developed by Herman Rorschach (1921)▯ -Relationship between perception and personality▯ - Free association(presenting cards and staying as neutral as possible)▯ - Inquiry(asking questions about why the patient saw what he/she did, job is to ascertain determinant of thought)▯ - testing the limits ▯ - Look through the results and interpret by looking through common answers.▯ - Scoring method developed by Exner▯ontent, Originality, Form, Movement. ▯ ▯ The Projective Hypothesis (Lawrence Frank, 1939)▯ Ideas or answers are projections of unconscious thoughts/motivations.▯ ▯ ▯ - Humanistic psychologist, formulated client centre psychology, as a result of his dissatisfaction with Freud’s ideas. ▯ ▯ Wolpe: Using the principles of conditioning, concerned himself with a more time friendly psychotherapy. ▯ ▯ Overt behaviour: A behavior that is directly observable; Child A hits Child B▯ Covert behaviour: A behavior that can not be directly observed.▯ ▯ ▯ Lecture Notes Psychic Determinism▯ Psychological events have causal power to determine behavior, according to Freud there were no accidents.▯ Eg: misplacing keys; you subconsciously did not want to go to school so you can not find your keys on purpose.▯ ▯ Unconscious Motivation▯ Based on the observation that certain mental content is more available to us. Conscious material is readily available to us. Conscious material does indeed effect behavior. ▯ Unconscious material also has a very strong influence on behavior.▯ ▯ Told Freud of a case that had profound importance. Had a patient with hysteria and found her symptoms disappeared after hypnotism. She had been able to remember why she had the symptoms while hypnotized and allowed them to go away.▯ ▯ “Hysteria” - Experience of physical symptoms for which there is no known organic basis. Considered faking “malingering”▯ ▯ Charcot▯ Taught Freud how to hypnotize patients, from this learned that hysteria was not fake. ▯ ▯ Bettleheim▯ Had a patient with amnesia (major memory loss), with no organic basis. Simply urged not necessary.▯emember and it allowed her to recall events. Learned that hypnosis was ▯ These events were a basis for the creation of psychoanalysis. ▯ ▯ Free Association - inferential▯ The patients job is to report to the psychologist everything that comes to his/her mind without exception. a way to access the unconscious. ▯ Analysts listens then makes an inference about what the patient means.▯ ▯ Led to a number of important discoveries. ▯ Relationship of a patients symptoms and their underlying cause (pathogenic ideas) is ▯ot simple, not one cause or event. Usually a series of pathogenic ideas.▯ Overdetermination▯ Symptoms are not determined by one event, determined by several pathogenic ideas.▯ ▯ Patients displayed Resistance to the free association process▯ ▯ Showed that patients symptoms create discomfort for them and subjectively they want to rid of such symptoms. Their resistances tend to undermine progress in psychotherapy.▯ Lecture Notes Instinct Theory▯ Primary drives: Everything we do has a primary drive. In every organism, there is a basic tendency towards the discharge of energy.▯ ▯ Fixation ▯ Can’t move on from something, Fixated. ▯ ▯ Libido▯ Psychosexual energy/drive▯ ▯ Stages of Psychosexual Development▯ Stage▯ Oral▯ Birth - 18months, conflict of weaning. Libido gets fixated at this stage making it hard to remove a child from breastfeeding. Two components to the oral stage▯ Oral eroticism ▯ pleasure of sucking and taking things from the mouth ▯ Oral sadistic stage▯ emergence of teeth makes mothers want to wean their babies, aggressive urge of biting is apparent.▯ ▯ Frustration ▯ occurs within the baby where the baby can not access the booby. ▯ Thinks there is nothing you can do to effect outcome▯ Over indulgence ▯ occurs when too much access of breast or prolonged feeding is appar
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