Lecture 9 - Personality .docx

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Lecture 9 - Personality 3/13/2012 6:30:00 AM
-Neoteny during this period, youngsters are dependent and human young
must learn and be social
-Trait theorists study the responses people make on questionaires. Those
responses are taken as clues for an underlying trait
-Behavioural/learning approach begin t study by examining behaviour as
sample
Signs versus samples
-Best way to study future behaviour is based on past behaviour
-Overt behaviour observable behaviour VS. Covert behaviour things we
cannot see - thought, wish
whatever inferences are made about covert behaviour they are
always made on basis of observation of overt behaviour
-According to B/L perspective, personality is nothing more than an
individual’s learned behaviour – like residue of learned behaviour
Personality is nothing more than an individual learned tendency
that you have acquired through the experiences in your life.
-Variety of B/L perspectives which vary according to # of dimensions but
what ties them all together is:
minimal use of theoretical constructs
minimal use of inferences
assessment: direct, observational, present-oriented
-Don’t look inside a person, look outside (by looking at the stimuli &
environment) the idea is that behaviour can be observed purely at an
objective level, by just looking at the person
-Skinner was a big champion of idiographic method, studied individuals in
enormous detail
-Sechenov Russian psychologist said all associations b/w events & ideas
can be understood through reflexes & their psychological basis
-PAVLOV’S experiment – classical conditioning DOG: BELL - FOOD
DROOL BELL DROOL
showed reflees can be associated with external things CC
Temporal contiguity
Repetition
What is the different between the conditioned response and unconditioned
response?
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conditioned response is weaker
conditioned response takes longer to elicit
conditioned response is not as predictable
o unconditioned is a reflex
probability of getting a conditioned response is highest when there
is similarity with the unconditioned response
-Watson we are a product of our environment
Little albert implication of this process is important in
understanding certain types of clinical phenomena
o CS curve
-much of CC that takes place in humans involve responses with emotional
qualities stimuli which lead to reflexive reactions in humans are stimuli
that elicit good or bad feelings
many of our likes, dislikes, attitudes, preferences, evaluations of
things can be conditioned
RAZRAN: Attitudes toward political slogans
o 3 conditions:
Free lunch
Noxious Odour
Neutral (2 months after)
o (highest ratings)
-Geer 2010
-Stereotypes generalizations about others are a form of stimulus
generalization
effect on our personality our likes, dislikes, attitudes can be
classical conditioned
Phobias gradually introduce the stimulus
-best way to treat most of the simple phobias systematic introduction
-We are pulled by events in addition to being pushed by events
-we are not just passive responders to stimuli in our environment but we
also behave in ways that are designed to bring the reaccurance of an event
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