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York University
PSYC 2210
Tony Neild

Chapter 4 Classical conditioning unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that elicits certain response, without prior learning (food) unconditioned response: an unlearned response to a certain stimulus (salivation) the connection between the stimulus and response is unlearned (innate) conditioned stimulus: does not initially invoke the unconditioned response, is paired with the unconditioned stimulus (bell) conditioned résponse:réponse that is learned through conditioning (salivation) US (FOOD)----> UR(SALIVATION) US(FOOD)+ CS(BELL) PAIRED= CS(BELL) ----> CR(SALIVATION) Eyeblink Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (airpuff) Unconditioned Response (eyeblink) Conditioned Stimulus (tone, light, ect) Conditioned résponse (eyeblink) -requires large number of US-CS pairings -unconditioned eyeblink is often a large and rapid eyelid closure while the conditioned eyeblink is often smaller and more gradual movement Conditioned Suppression (conditioned emotional response) -subjects are usually rats - the US is an aversive event such as a brief electric shock delivered through metal bars -the unconditioned response may be to jump or flinch, temporarily stop what it was doing before the shock -the measure of conditioning is the suppression of ongoing behaviour when the CS is presented -its ongoing behaviour can be measured, the rat is given separate task in which it can earn occasional food pellets by pressing a lever -rats rate of pressing suddenly decreases as soon as the Cs is presented, and it may only take a few lever presses during the minute that the CS is present - the amount of suppression of lever pressing is used to measure the strength of conditioning -conditioning takes place in far few procedure than eyeblink procedure Skin conductance Response -subjects are usually human -a change in electrical conductivity of the skin- - to measure SCR two coin shaped electrodes are attached to the palm, and the electrodes are connected to device that measures momentarily fluctuations in the conductivity of the skin - conductivity of skin is altered by emotions, which is why SCR is often used in lie detector tests -large increase in skin conductivity is shock and similar increase can be conditioned to any Cs that is paired with shock Taste Aversion learning US- poison injection UR- sickness CS- taste of food or drink UR- sickness -refuse to eat or drink substance -can be strong and long lasting -usually develops after just one conditioning trial Pavlovs Stimulus Substitution Theory The theory: predicts the changes that supposedly take place among the observable conditioning- the stimulus and response . By virtue of repeated pairings between the US and CS , the CS becomes a substitute for the US Problems with the theory: -the CR is almost never an exact replica of the UR -not all parts of the UR to a stimulus become part of the CR For example, when dog presented with food many response such as chewing and swallowing, occur in addition to salivation, Cs will not elicit these responses - a CR may include some responses that are not present in the UR Ex: dogs turn head when bell rang -the CR is sometimes in the opposite direction of the UR How the theory could be amended it should be acknowledged that only some of the components of the UR are transferred to the CR -it should be recognized that a CS may elicit UR of its own sign tracking theory: animals tend to orient themselves toward, approach and explore any stimuli that are good predictors of important events such as the delivery of food - the form of the CR may reflect both the UR to the US and the UR to the CS itself conditioned compensatory réponses:CR that are opposite of the UR ex: increase vs decrease in heart rate What is learned in Classical conditioning? US Center: specific part of the brain that becomes active whenever a US is presented CS Centre: specific part of the brain that becomes active when the CS is presented Response centre: for every UR there is a part of brain called response centre, the activation of the response centre that initiates the neural commands that produced the observed response innate connection between US centre and response centre S-R association: a direct association between the CS centre and repines centre; association between stimulus and response S-S association: an association between the CS centre and US centre is formed during conditioning. LAter when the CS is presented, the CS centre is activated, which activate the US centre , which in turn activates the Response centre association between two stimuli Rescorla -if the S-S position is correct, then after conditioning, the occurrence of the CR depends on the continued strength of two associations: learned association between CS centre and US centre, and the innate association between the US centre and the repines centre -if the US repines connection is somewhat weakened, this should cause reduction in strength of the CR, since the occurrence of the Cr depends on this connection if the S-R position is correct -the strength of the CR does not depend on the continued integrity of the US response association , but only on the direct association between CS centre and repines centre - the strength of the CR is dependent on the continued strength of the US repines association as predicted by S-S association Basic Conditioning Phenomena Acquisition -the part of experiment in which the subject first experiences a series of US-CS pairings and during which the CR gradually appears and increases in strength asymptote: the stable maximum level of conditioned responding that is gradually approached as conditioning proceeds -the highest level of conditioned responding that can be maintained Extinction - the mere passage of time has little effect on the strength of a conditioned response - repeatedly presenting the CS without the US -reverses the the effects of the previous acquisition phase -does not permanently destroy CS-US association Spontaneous Recovery - reappearance of conditioned response after extinction inhibition theory: after extinction is complete , the subject is left with two counteracting associations - CS-US association formed during acquisition is called the excitatory association -because through this association the CS now excites or activates the US centre - a parallel bu
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