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Lecture

PSYC 2210 Lecture Notes - Immune System, Enuresis, Interferon


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2210
Professor
Tony Neild

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Chapter 4
Classical conditioning
unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that elicits certain response, without prior learning
(food)
unconditioned response: an unlearned response to a certain stimulus
(salivation)
the connection between the stimulus and response is unlearned (innate)
conditioned stimulus: does not initially invoke the unconditioned response, is paired
with the unconditioned stimulus (bell)
conditioned résponse: réponse that is learned through conditioning
(salivation)
US (FOOD)----> UR(SALIVATION)
US(FOOD)+ CS(BELL) PAIRED=
CS(BELL) ----> CR(SALIVATION)
Eyeblink Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus (airpuff)
Unconditioned Response (eyeblink)
Conditioned Stimulus (tone, light, ect)
Conditioned résponse (eyeblink)
-requires large number of US-CS pairings
-unconditioned eyeblink is often a large and rapid eyelid closure while the conditioned
eyeblink is often smaller and more gradual movement
Conditioned Suppression (conditioned emotional response)
-subjects are usually rats
- the US is an aversive event such as a brief electric shock delivered through metal bars
-the unconditioned response may be to jump or flinch, temporarily stop what it was
doing before the shock

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-the measure of conditioning is the suppression of ongoing behaviour when the CS is
presented
-its ongoing behaviour can be measured, the rat is given separate task in which it can
earn occasional food pellets by pressing a lever
-rats rate of pressing suddenly decreases as soon as the Cs is presented, and it may
only take a few lever presses during the minute that the CS is present
- the amount of suppression of lever pressing is used to measure the strength of
conditioning
-conditioning takes place in far few procedure than eyeblink procedure
Skin conductance Response
-subjects are usually human
-a change in electrical conductivity of the skin-
- to measure SCR two coin shaped electrodes are attached to the palm, and the
electrodes are connected to device that measures momentarily fluctuations in the
conductivity of the skin
- conductivity of skin is altered by emotions, which is why SCR is often used in lie
detector tests
-large increase in skin conductivity is shock and similar increase can be conditioned to
any Cs that is paired with shock
Taste Aversion learning
US- poison injection
UR- sickness
CS- taste of food or drink
UR- sickness
-refuse to eat or drink substance
-can be strong and long lasting
-usually develops after just one conditioning trial
Pavlovs Stimulus Substitution Theory
The theory: predicts the changes that supposedly take place among the observable
conditioning- the stimulus and response . By virtue of repeated pairings between the
US and CS , the CS becomes a substitute for the US
Problems with the theory:
-the CR is almost never an exact replica of the UR
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-not all parts of the UR to a stimulus become part of the CR
For example, when dog presented with food many response such as chewing and
swallowing, occur in addition to salivation, Cs will not elicit these responses
- a CR may include some responses that are not present in the UR
Ex: dogs turn head when bell rang
-the CR is sometimes in the opposite direction of the UR
How the theory could be amended
it should be acknowledged that only some of the components of the UR are transferred
to the CR
-it should be recognized that a CS may elicit UR of its own
sign tracking theory: animals tend to orient themselves toward, approach and explore
any stimuli that are good predictors of important events such as the delivery of food
- the form of the CR may reflect both the UR to the US and the UR to the CS itself
conditioned compensatory réponses: CR that are opposite of the UR
ex: increase vs decrease in heart rate
What is learned in Classical conditioning?
US Center: specific part of the brain that becomes active whenever a US is presented
CS Centre: specific part of the brain that becomes active when the CS is presented
Response centre: for every UR there is a part of brain called response centre, the
activation of the response centre that initiates the neural commands that produced the
observed response
innate connection between US centre and response centre
S-R association: a direct association between the CS centre and repines centre;
association between stimulus and response
S-S association: an association between the CS centre and US centre is formed
during conditioning. LAter when the CS is presented, the CS centre is activated, which
activate the US centre , which in turn activates the Response centre association
between two stimuli
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