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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2210
Professor
Anthony Nield
Semester
Winter

Description
1 LECTURE 2 NOTES - Cant observe someone else and expect they are doing the same things as we are - We have complex mental lives – we create good rationales (explanations for our behaviour) - We do things that we aren’t entirely aware of (visual fields for split brain people) - Anthropomorphism = observe someone or something else, the reason they are doing is the same reason as you - Even though the animal you observe is doing for a specific reason, doesn’t mean other animal will do the same - Insects stay under the rock because they have… o 1) negative photo taxis = move/grow away from sun - Alternative insects stay out of light because… kinesis = active when there’s light, passive when it’s dark - Behaviourism = study behaviour and conditions that produce the behaviour o Don’t assume internal working (physiology) – nervous system that is responsible for all behaviour o Interested of what behaviour is build in or what is learned - Behaviour is sometimes not flexible (toads’ retina sockets are switched backward 180 degrees will shoot the same direction to get the fly; but if sockets switched downward, will shoot tongue to the wrong direction) - Learning = reversible change of behaviour due to experience but some aren’t reversible o Cats with severe eyes damage early, will not learn to see if pass the sensitive period o Cynader: during development, there’s competition between parts in the nervous system o What was happening (back of the brain receives visual info) o Nervous system: whenever sensation is coming from, opposite side of the brain is responsible for processing (everything pass through in the middle of the brain) o 1 part of the brain is responsible for 1 part of the visual part of the world o If cover right side visual field, left eye connects all of the right side visual field as represented in the actions in the brain o Our brain is not deprived of stimulation – developmental plasticity (change in behavioural potential – not reversible) because your right eye cant see, your left eye takes over to the right side visual field too o Behaviour due to EXPERIENCE, it is NOT REVERSIBLE - Cannon: if salamander can learn to swim, they can swim within few days - One alternative to learning is = maturation o With time, nervous system develops regardless of experience o They are wired to swim, let their nervous system to be mature enough to be able to swim (NOT EXPERIENCE) - Fatigue = doing things repeatedly, but over time gets tired and stop the behaviour (changes in time) o REVERSIBLE, get tired, don’t do it and stop to rest. But later, will do it again - Behaviour is flexible, and adaptive. Adaptive nature of behaviour is why it is possible for new environments to be inhabited by creatures from a different one - Descartes: people had free will, had a soul that can control their behaviour. o Recognized animals have similar characteristics o Body is like a machine; your soul contacts your machine o Concept of free will = concept of sin (if yo know what you are doing, you can choose to behave well or badly) o Mechanical parts were controlled by the pineal gland (in the brain – top of the head) o Pineal gland receives info from your “soul”, manages to pump things into your muscle o Hydraulic theory = fluid is moving through your body, making your body parts to expand/contract o Soul controls what you do; body is mechanical - Reflexion = immediate response (reflex) - Reflex behaviour = tellar reflex (tap your tellar tendon in knee, it jumps up) do it to see if it’s too big o Brain inhibits it from doing too vigorously - Reflex are useful and adaptive – reflex in knee relates to gravity; maintain ourselves upright. It’s a muscle stretch 2 - Arm reflex is set by the spinal cord, nothing in the “soul” Stimulus Motor (Spinal cord) - Pinna reflex (in cats) – if cat asleep, and tickle his ear, ears will start twitching. If keeps touching, head will twitch. If keeps touching, back leg will kick to touch his ear - Recruitment = intensity builds, more body parts is incorporate to respond - See it in infants who haven’t learned anything yet o Touch the centre of the palm, fingers curl up – occurs right away after birth o If touch their cheeks, mouth turns towards there (to get food) o Walking reflex = pick them up in armpits, they will have walking movements (coordinated by spinal cords) similar to dog/horse o Spinal cord is coordinated to walk with arm and leg opposite (taken care of automatically) - Habituation = reflex can change. Occurs when unimportant stimulus (which normally elicit you to responds) is repeated, behaviour will decrease o (NON-ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING) – learning not to respond to something unimportant or insignificant o Ex: startle reflex = after done it number of times - Sensory adaptation = habituated sensory stimulus (getting used to the train noise) o Internal arousal system (not getting angry or annoyed anymore) - Used to it, when it doesn’t happen, it can be alarming - Kandel: how habituation occurs o Dendrite/sense organ  other neuron  muscle o Tested in a squid = myeline sheath around neuron - Used an aplysia to look at habituation - If touch the mantle shelf, the gill shuts/closes down o Habituated if touch them softly repeatedly o Induction in transmission down the sensory neuron (less neuron transmitters) o Receptors receive neuron transmitter, triggered by it in response o Can be failure of receptors; or failure of transmitter; or failure of motor/muscle (fatigue) o Not motor/muscle fatigue (if change the intensity of touch, reflex will change) o Direct wiring system = stimulus  wiring  response - Aplysia has 100 connections in this reflex (in human, there are 1000 synapses) o At synapse between 2 neurons, there’s a change in the chemical make up (less transmitter was released as habituation continues) o At the end of sensory axon, leading to a motor response o Sensory  motor. The cut is where “” occurs - (Habituation decreases in shutting down the gill) - We can shock aplysia’s tail, then the behaviour starts all over again (DISHABITUATION) 3 - The shock stimulates the arousal system (wakes you up). When arousal system is stimulated, reflex is faster and stronger. It facilitates the production neural transmitters - Arousal system is a general arousal (not direct wiring) adrenaline is produced, when you are unalert - Habituation = adaptive (things might not be dangerous anymore, not wasting energy) - Sensitization = important stimuli which are potentially dangerous. Reflexes are faster than it used to be - Habituation occurs when there is repeatedly unimportant stimuli - Sensitization occurs when there is repeatedly important stimuli o Get electric shock to finger, after numerous time, behaviour is faster and more vigorously o This happens when you are touching something hot o Occurs in arousal system – there`s no time for dishabituation to occur because there`s always sufficient supply of neural transmitter - Modal action pattern = develop the same way in all species, with(out) experience o Studied by ethologist (study of animal by zoologist) – you could tell the species in a distant by their behaviour (by their courtship) o Species remain separate, because they are not interested (the behaviour of the other is not appropriate) o These “fixed action patters” – developed in species-specific - Ex: Egg rolling/retrieval = in birds that lay eggs on sandy flat ground o If eggs roll off nest, they will get the egg and roll it back o Once that behaviour started, you cant stop it until it is done o The bigger it is, the more interested it is to retrieve it (whether it’s eggs or not) o The anything big in the beach is their eggs, will retrieve any object that is round and big o Retrieval behaviour is build in – under the same circumstances - Kine West: Cuckoo lays her eggs in someone else’s nest, females don’t raise their own nest o Advantage: has bigger eggs. Other species eggs are smaller, hatch later and gets pushed down o Cuckoos mate based on sounds, recognize it automatically by its mating call - Some birds learn the song by its dialect (learn it before they sing it) - Cow birds: raised them in 2 groups o 1) see other cowbirds, but cant hear them o 2) hear other cowbirds, but cant see them - Cow birds never seen/heard with other cowbirds, attracted more female cow birds o Dominate cow birds will have the best song, but will be attacked by other male o Ability to not to sing that well, will end up being dead by other males o Not by learning the song, but sing it originally being built in - Habituation can be reversed by arousal - Opponent process theory = (looks like habituation) aka tolerance o Ex: if you take drugs often enough, you need more of it to get the same effect o Parallel to habituation. But has to do with more emotion than drugs o Whatever is the initial response, is being reversed by this experience (made fearful – opposite of that is joyful) o Drug (cause you to be aroused) – withdraw system is depression o Drink alcohol a lot – withdraw system is nervous system arousal - (the shock reaction/response) o A: not going to occur if circumstances/cause is different o B’ (prime): compensation that nervous system makes to bring you make to normal behaviour (keep things the way it should be) if temperature deviate, there are mechanisms to bring it back to normal - A = in response 4 B = physiological change (reverse) On Off - B = due to physiological change - People die in overdose – in the context that they didn’t normally get them o Overwhelmed under the circumstances they are not used to - A matter of classical conditioning = learning – start to make that response o In this context, I will give this response (it is a learned response) – only occur occasionally in that specific context - Associative learning o 1) cognitive = relationship between things and gaining info about the world - Aristotle = association occurs because… o 1) contiguity = 2 things that occurred together on a regular basis (thunder and lightning) o 2) similarity = things similar are associated o 3) contrast = up down, left right, near far - British empiricist (2 centuries later) = concerned of association. Believe all organisms came with no knowledge, everything they know they learn. They learn everything by association - Can only learn things through experience, and empirical info - Contiguity, similarity  contrast (a continuum, not 2 diff things), frequency, vividness - More intense the stimulation, the more it will be associated with something else - Frequency = the more often things paired together, the more chance the things will be associated together - Vividness = more intense the stimulation, more quicker the response learned - Recency = over time, how recent the behaviour occurred - Brown: prior habits (depend on what we already knew) – “negative transfer” , recency, constitutional differences (interest), emotional state o Birds associate visual cues with food and sickness o Humans/rats other mammals associate tastes with food - Emotional state = what you experienced in that emotional state (so emotional at the time, you cant remember what happened when you are calm) - Ebbingaus: recall something, with no cues. Recognition = here’s something, did you see this before o Some residual effect: cant recall by recognition, you learn faster because there is something there that basically helps you o Contiguity = something he demonstrated o Frequency = the more closer to the list, the more recalled o Similarity = put words with similar words, meant the same thing, had easier time to remember the list o Vividness = learning more dramatic words, more easily remembered - Directionality (Stimulus-Response S-R) o Car (S) – chair (R) o Chair (S) – elephant (R) - Classical conditioning = simplest kind of associative learning - Pavlov: interested of hormonal influences (salivation) of digestive processes. Instead of salivating to food, start to salivate to cues to food o Particular stimulus translates to conditioned response o Starts with reflex response (food in the mouth leads to salivation) food (unconditioned stimulus US)  salivation (unconditioned response UR) (without any learning, it is automatic, the way we are wired) o Pair a bell to food regularly – see learning based on contiguity and recency rule, will be more associated. Over trials, response/frequency will increase (acquisition – learning curve) o At the peak, and test bell with no food (if they have learned by missing out the food) – it is a conditioned response (salivate without food). Bell alone is the conditioned stimulus 5 - Timing is an issue!! Switch to different US (controllable) o Shock = time it very precisely when shock is given and when behaviour will occur o Eye blink (air puff, shock to the eyelid) - Extinction = when you drop to 0, response is not extinct, but it’s extinguished (stop pairing CS to US, CR drops) - LECTURE 3 NOTES - Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) = response due to emotion o Give a shock to foot of paw, measure GSR (changes skin resistance) due to an emotional reaction o Measure how learning occur, not necessarily what we want to measure o Emotional conditioning = fear - Represent an emotional reaction Paw Skeletal Automatic breathing GSR Shock - Respiration = breathing - Wagner: Affective Extension (AE) / Affective Extension Sometimes Opponent Process (AESOP) - CS-US Acquisition - CS Alone – Extinction Spontaneous Response - Kamin: Suppression ratio = emotion suppresses certain kind of response - Phase 1 = press bar for food (rats) - Phase 2 = new box  tone  shock paired o The tone promotes anxiety/fear - Phase 3 = press for food (after a period of time) ---| add tone Pressing (30 secs) Tone (30 secs) Number of bar press = B / (A + B) A B 20 / (20 + 20) = 0.5 no fear 20 20 20 0 0 / (20 + 0) = 0 fear 6 - Suppression ratio = B / (A + B) or conditioned emotional response (CER) - Rewarding stimulation makes them very happy (in brain – in dopamine area) - The more suppression, the lesser the fear - The more fear, the less responding there is - Brown/Jenkins: Sign Tracking (autoshaping) = skinner: method of successive approximations o Take control, don’t wait for lab rats to accidentally wait to press the lever (need 10 mins) o First wander around. Walk to the other side of the room and hear “clunk”. Connect the “clunk” with food - Use pigeon, with food dish. If light the disk, will deliver the food. Pigeon started pecking the disk o Pecking behaviour like their behaviour to getting food o Pecking to light to get food = peck in instant motion o Pecking to light to get water = peck in scooping motion (like getting water) - Breland & Breland: chicken were trying to be conditioned to paying attention to the national anthem. When anthem is on, chicken comes out, will get the food. But then later, chickens start to dance - Sign tracking behaviour = dog is conditioned to get the food when they see the cue (light) for food o Instead of going straight to the food dish when light is on, dog first runs to the cue before they head to the food (double the distance to get the food) - Taste aversion/food aversion (Garcia) = learn quickly external stimuli if pain is involved. Cues from outside world will warn you. If being poisoned, food going into your system will react o Notice other friends get sick after the food, will see it as aversive - Lithium chloride in the food and irradiate them - 1. Get food paired with particular taste (experienced before)  learn very quickly if tasted food induces sickness - 2. Get food paired with lights&tone (annoyance) - 1. Shock  taste (no learning) - 2. Shock  light&tone - Food paired with a taste (which induces sickness) – learn that the taste will induce sickness and will avoid it - Food paired with shock (which doesn’t induce sickness) – learn to avoid that area of where food is, but didn’t avoid getting the food - Timing of learning is different. CC needs few second of cue and unpleasant event - In taste aversion, didn’t feel sick hours later, but will still avoid the food - Rats (cant throw up) = if get a new food, eat very little of it. The other rats will watch one eat. Hard to poison them. If they feel a little bit sick, they will get away and not eat the food – built in caution rats have - Hunger is conditioned = if eat at the same time, body prepares for food at that time everyday (prepare arrival of food). Cue associated with food makes you hungry - Contiguity = good feature to have in CC - Simultaneous procedure = CS -------| |-------- (#3 best) – what Pavlov thought US------- | |------- - Delayed procedure = CS ----- | | --------  Interstimulus interval IST (the gap) US --------| | ------- (#1best procedure) – especially if delay is 0.5 sec - Trace procedure = CS ---------| | ---------- (#2 best) – depending on how far US is presented after CS US ---------------| |------ - Backward procedure = CS -------- | | -------- US ----| | --------------- (produces no learning what so ever) - Specifically unpaired = often use to see if CS doesn’t produce response if not paired with US 7 o Always present CS before US (so there is no pairing) - T______| |_________| |___________| |____ (tone) - L____________| |__________| |____| |_____(light) - S_______________________________ | |_____(shock) - They were early any time before 0.5, but late after 0.5 seconds (the delay of US after CS) - Takes time for info to be processed, that “time” for conditioning is 0.5 second o At that time, everything is processed. Just when things are processed, the shock appears - Decision has to make, optimal time increased a little bit to 0.6 seconds - Marlin = Black White  Rats like to be in the dark, prefer the black side  Only spend time in the white if there is potential danger  Tone & shock  Blocked the divider  Tone (CS) – Shock (US)  Test drinking – lick at different pace  How long spent licking 35 times (longer they lick, the more suppression, the more fear) if no fear of the tone, lick very fast - If you are afraid, it will be attached to the best predictor, that causes you to be conditioned - If tone is a good conditioning interval, you are fear of the tone, but you will still stay in the black area - If tone is not a good condition interval, but is fearful of the shock, then being shocked in the black area will be a fearful event, so you will go to the white area o Fear is attached to the black area - Fear of the tone is high = fear of black area is low - Fear of the tone is low = fear of black area is high - Tone is no used of the predictor, black component is of higher fear - 1. First tested whether rats prefer black or white area = prefer BLACK area - 2. Present shock AND tone in the black area, became fearful of the shock - 3. Brought these conditioned rats into a new drinking box to test their fear o If fearful of the tone, will suppress their behaviour and drink less o If not fearful of the tone, will drink very fast - 4. Brought them back into the box without divider o If fearful of the tone, spend more time in the white area o If not fearful of the tone, spend time in the black area Excitatory conditioning vs inhibitory conditioning - Conditioned inhibitory: - T ____| |_____| |_____| |____| |_______| |_____ - L ___________ | |_________________| |__| |_____ - S_____| | ____________| |_____| |__| |______________ - Light as inhibitory cue = safety signal - Discriminations - T1_____| |__________| | __________| |__________ - T2_________| |___| |_______| |__________________ 8 - S______| |__________| |___________| |__________ - Stimulus generalization = responding to both different tone - Tone 2 = inhibitory. Tone 1 = excitatory T1 T2 inhibition - Latent inhibition (CS-preexposure) = present a tone many times without a shock, then you present it with a shock. Didn’t have any inhibition, then you started training, you show dramatic response retarded acquisition o Takes longer to learn, because NOW shock means something, because they learned to ignore the tone (similar to habituation) - Measure inhibition? – have an excitatory response, to see if inhibitory stimulus does inhibit the response - Compound stimulus = train an inhibitory stimulus and then you train a new excitatory stimulus o Have 2 tones (discrimination) o T1 gets shocked. T2 is inhibitory o Then shock condition to a light – pair the light with T2 o Lights becomes the inhibitory too o Putting T2 and light together is referred as SUMMATION TEST – the most useful - Bi-directional response system isn’t often used because its limited - CS-Intensity = the louder the tone, the more quickly the learning occurs o If dim light, and very distracted, then you wont notice it - US-Intensity = how strong the shock or airpuff is (how it is experienced) by the individual - Preparedness (CS-US belongingness)= the degree of those 2 stimuli are easily connected, by our particular nervous system - Salience (impact) = what kind of impact CS has o Tell me when the light is as bright is as the tone is as loud o If the stimulus have equal salience = have equal impact on us - Seligman - Rat is highly prepared for taste. - Birds is contra-prepared for taste (avoid food by how they look like) o Wont eat the insect that made it sick o Taste is contra-prepared. Visual cues are prepared - Higher order conditioning - 1. L ____| |______| |______| |_______| |_____ - S_____| |________| | ______| | ________| |______ - Conditioned to the light, because of the shock - 2. L ____| |______| |_______| |________| |_____ - T_____| |______| |_________| |________| |______ - Light continues, tone will continue to produce a response. - Sensory preconditioning - 1. L ____| |______| |_______| |________| |_____ (sensory stimuli, no behaviour/response – just look) 9 - T____| |______| |_________| |________| |______ - 2. L ____| |______| |______| |_______| |_____ (shock to the light, there’s sensory and response) - S_____| |________| | ______| | ________| |______ - What will happen to the tone presented alone? o With the tone, you will see a response o The tone equivalent to the light, will produce same response to the light - Contingency vs contiguity - Rescorla: contingency o Probability of shock given the tone = 1 (shock always occurs when tone occurs) o Probability of shock given no tone = 0 o +ve contingency (when tone is there, shock happens) o If this… then that…. o Contingency = implication of any event on the behaviour - P (US given CS) = 1 - P (US given no CS) = 0 (no conditioning) - If P(US given CS) = P (US given no CS)  get a shock when tone is there. Get a shock when tone is not there - random arrangement = 0 contingency – tone gives no contingency, no info when shock will come - if P (US given CS) < P (US given no CS) = -ve contingency for tone (inhibitory – safety signal) - +ve contingency gives excitatory - Contingency is more important than contiguity  information - If CS gives you some info (2 kinds of info – a) likely to get a shock; b) not likely to get a shock because of tone) - Unpaired situation is not useful – produce inhibition o If don’t pair tone and shock, tone occur no shock. Shock but no tone. = if got the tone, you are safe for a while (inhibitory of fear) o If tone has no info (random presentation of shock and tone) = good control group for conditioning - +ve contingency leads to excitatory conditioning - 0 contingency leads to NO conditioning - -ve contingency leads to inhibitory conditioning - P (shock given tone – US given CS) = 0.4 - P (shock given no tone) = 0.4  0.2  0.1  0 - P (S given T) is the same as P (S given no T) o Difference increase – and use suppression ratio o More suppression = more fear - 0.5 (suppression ratio = no fear) = P (shock given no tone) at 0.4 - 0.2 (suppression ratio) = P (S given no T) at 0.2 - 0 (suppression ratio) = P (S given no T) at 0 - Tone is best predictor to produce fear - If scared you at random interval  no specific fear learned - Contingency suggests info provided with the CS = prediction - Ability of prediction is the timing of CS-US interval - Prediction of the timing of US (Shock) is better if its 0.5 seconds apart - Contiguity has some effect. If appear together, recognition of association is better. Association of stimuli and response will be stronger - Contingency is more important predictor wherever CR will occur 10 LECTURE 4 NOTES - Contingency = relates to predictability  predicts the occurrence of stimulus (excitatory response) if get non- stimulus (inhibitory response) - If contingency is +ve (+1) will get conditioning – closer to 1 is better. If (-1) will get inhibitory conditioning - 0 contingency = will get no conditioning (even if stimuli appear together over and over) if US appears at other time and CS is not a predictive of the environment, theres no conditioning to the US - CC is good for conditioning emotion (phobia) – fear directed to a specific thing (built in fear from genetics) - Freudian interpretation of fear: something has happened in your childhood generated this problem, need weeks of therapies - Wolpe: a fear is an emotion, we can counter that fear if we can produce a different emotion to the same stimulus (Counterconditioning) - Counterconditoning = conditioning a response that is incompatible to the response to the given stimulus o Train a behaviour that is incompatible to the response you don’t want to have o Replace fear with something else o Cant be afraid and be relaxed at the same time - Train relaxation, to replace fear - Anxiety prisoners felt when they are released if they are out for the first time. They were in the protected prison, now you have to go back to the environment - The reason we feel fear is because of the physical arousal - Wolpe: have prisoners imagine circumstances (anxiety) – “systematic desensitization” o Develop a hierarchy associated with that potential fear o Ex: height’s hierarchy: putting people in situation where its not high, then be relaxed. First need to train relaxation o Main relaxation = having people tense all their muscle then relax o Gradually take unstressful event, to a more fear-evoking situation o A) Low fear  relaxed. B) Slightly higher  relaxed. C) high level o You rely on stimulus generalization = if you cant relax at a) can you stay relax at b), if not go back down. Then go again, if relax, go up steps more - Wolpe: have people imagine what was like to leave the cell - People assume you can concur your fear with rationale: “I know the spider doesn’t hurt me” – learn to now have a physiological response to the spider - Remain comfortable at every stage and progress to the stage you want to be - John: compare systematic desensitization to a number of therapeutic procedures to phobia o Every case systematic desensitization work and it works quickly - Replacing fear with relaxation - Flooding = being flooded to the things they are afraid of. They become extremely anxious/uncomfortable o But their ability to produce these emotion wears out, eventually they wont have emotion left o Difficult to convince them to take this approach - “Grief Therapy” = used flooding process to deal with grief. Got all the people who aren’t treated successfully by other psycs. (flood the woman who lost her daughter in the fire with a picture of her, her fav music) - Flooding and systematic desensitization are opposite procedures - Systematic desensitization = slowly/gradually get them to unafraid of something - Important thing = procedure that will improve their lives and as a secondary case, people around them - Aversion training = reduce alcohol abuse o Take a chemical that will cause alcohol to make them feel awful immediately o Alcohol becomes associated with bad feeling 11 - Wagner: AESOP – Affective Extension (whenever there is a conditioning process which involves physical response, there also be an emotional response that is conditioned at the same time – 2 diff things conditioned) - SOP – Sometimes Opponent Process - ETklboom Stenart: o morphine as US  UR is salivation o tone as CS  CR is salivation o atropine (US)  dry mouth (UR) o tone (CS)  salivation (CR) A PARADOX (opposite response) - atropine works on the salivary glands in the mouth o central nervous system: o in the mouth: something in the mouth causes you to directly salivate - atropine is peripheral - salivation is central - central nervous system’s goal is stability (like thermostats) - if central nervous system is in control, that is what it causes the behaviour change (then you will get the same response to the CS as you got to the US) - if central nervous system is left alone and you have peripheral, then you will get the opposite response (that will get you back to the stable state) - Learning occurs at the central nervous system! - Atropine: by lowering the activity of peripheral system the salivary system will increase salivation to bring it back to where it should be - Morphine: if you change the central nervous system by setting it to a higher level of salivary amount, then you will get the same CR as UR - If US affects the central nervous system, then it will produce the same system - If US affects the peripheral system, then whatever CNS will cause to do, then it will be the response S-S Vs. S-R - CC: CS – US  UR o CS – US = S-S - CC: CS – US  UR o CS – UR = S-R - S-R appears to be true in situation in which stimulus control (repeatedly perform a task when stimulus is there) ex: throw money in vending machine for coke (no US per say) – it was an instrumental response o Often do it enough, cause you to throw money in it, even though you don’t want it o Made that response in the presence of the stimulus, you will continue to respond - Rescorla always supported S-S - Kamin: interested in CC process of “blocking” - 1. If condition light and tone to a shock, you get acquisition to light and tone - 2. If first condition light to a shock, then the next phase, you add the tone and light/shock continue to appear o You get acquisition to light, but you don’t learn to tone (even if it was always paired with US) o Learning is blocked to the tone, because you already learned conditioning to the light o Tone adds no new information o Blocking occurs when tone is paired with something (light) that already predicts the shock - Kamin: memory scan hypothesis – related to surprise o If you are surprised, then you will tend to scan back in your memory saying “what just happened” o If you are not surprised, you pay no attention to the world o Cognition (sensory memory) = after a stimulus has stopped, it is available to you for less than 1 sec (brain still has that info that you can scan back to) o If you are surprised, to what can I attribute to this shock I just got (it was a light) o If you are not surprised, light is already conditioned. When there’s light, shock comes. Theres no point to learn the tone to the shock because its not a surprise 12 - Blocking = if something is already conditioned, a new stimulus will not be conditioned - Rescorla-Wagner: On every trial, you learn a fixed proportion of what is to be learned o 24 words to learn, if you learn 50% of what is to be learned on each trial st o 1ndrial: 12 words. Remaining 12 o 2 trial: 6 words. Remaining 6 o 3 trial: 3 words. Remaining 3 th o 4 trial: 1.5 worst. Remaining 1.5 - Show a learning curve. 1 trial is maximum learning 1 2 3 V n k (  - n ) - k (constant) – rate at learning occur o Affected by CS intensity (salience/impact of stimulus) o Preparedness (belongingness) how ready it is for CS given to that US o US intensity o (how fast you’re going to learn) o Depends on what you bring to it (the potential to learn) o k=0, no learning occurs -  (lambda) – maximum you can possibly reach / asymptote o Determined by US - Vn– current level of learning at that point Instrumental Learning / Operant Conditioning - Both learning processes that relate to a situation where behaviour occurs and has some consequences - CC VS Instrumental o CC: response is elicited (force response to occur in presence of CS) o Instrumental: response is emitted (something individual does which leads to consequences that change the likelihood of that response to occur in the future) - Instrumental VS Operant o Both are associated with emitting a behaviour and the consequence of that - Instrumental: involves discrete trials by Thorndike (instrumentally getting what you want) SR learning where stimulus is a combo of the situation, stimuli from the individual and any specific stimuli associated. The R as law of effect o Law of effect  Stimulus situation  response occur  outcome  If outcome is satisfying, that strengthen the connection b/w stimulus and response  If outcome is unsatisfying, that weakens the connection b/w stimulus and response - Satisfying/unsatisfying events will lead to strengthening or weakening of the particular outcome - Discrete trials = put animal to put a maze and see how long it gets to finish or how many errors it made o More trials = take less time to finish the trial o More trials = less errors made o Measured as discrete = put them in maze at start area, measure them how fast it takes to finish o Then put it back to the start. Each of the start is a discrete trial o You have 8 different chicks, you will take the average of their trial time 13 - Use a T maze or a Y maze – learn to turn left or right for food (see how long it takes to figure it out) o In real world for a rat, it doesn’t exist often (where food is taken, will be gone. Wont go there anymore) o Learn even if you take the food from there a few moment ago, it will appear again - Use a runway = measure speed or time of how long it takes to go to the finish o Run very fast and takes shorter time to get to the finish - st - Skinner Box: 1 thing you have to do is magazine training o When the food magazine goes “clunk” it shakes and make a loud noise o First habituates to the clunk and the loud noise o Hang around at the food dish area, by dropping the food when they are near it o Once they find the food, they start eating. They will be less likely to get distracted by clunk/noise o Willing to press the bar in order to hear the noise (secondary reinforcer) o The noise becomes reinforcing because it is associated with the food o Start pressing the bar because it produces the noise and the food o Rats can essentially live in there - Not a discrete trial = they can spend their time in there and press the bar (Traditional instrumental conditioning) Acquisition extinction (Operant conditioning learning acquisition/extinction curve) - Skinner: manipulated situation with 1 individual (repeated measures) – use the same subject but change the circumstances to see the difference in behaviour - Discrete: use multiple subjects - Reinforcement = give food when response is made (food is the reinforcer) - Paradoxical punishment - Reinforcer increases the likelihood of the response that immediately precedes it o If you do something that causes an outcome, and it causes you to perform it again. It is a reinforcer - Punisher decreases the likelihood of the response that immediately precedes it - Skinner uses the outcome definition = if decreases the likelihood of behaviour is a punishment. If increases the likelihood of behaviour is a reinforcer o Tendency to ignore when things work well, and pay attention when things don’t work well o Children do well (ignore), children misbehave (get attention) o Giving the person attention which they can only get when they misbehave  Price to get attention (reinforcer) because otherwise they are ignored Apply (behavior occurs) Remove Appetitive Positive Reinforcement Negative Punishment / Omission / Response Cost - Removing something appetitive - Time out (social reinforcement) removal of something new/privilege – institutional setting Aversive Positive Punishment (applying shock) Negative Reinforcement - something nasty is removed 14 - Positive contingency = something is applied - Negative contingency = something is removed LECTURE 5 NOTES - Positive reinforcement (food = desirable). Food arrives after you do something, you are more likely to do that for more food to come in the future - If pain goes away, more likely to behave that way negative reinforcement. - Withdraw something nice (negative punishment / omission) = decrease in behaviour in the future. Ex: timeout - What the reinforcer is is determined by the individual. Can see if its reinforcer/punishment by their behaviour - Incentive contrast = if you are expecting a nice reward but you get a bad one, your response will be negative - By Crespi = either get 256 or 16 food pellets on the runway. (figure 1) - Grice: instead of changing the quantity, they changed the quality (sugar water (figure 2) - Experience will affect your experience (with more experience with the good reward, once it is bad, behaviour goes down) - Pay is not a motivator. Interest in what they are doing is what keeps them coming to work (benefits, friendships, relationship with boss, enthusiasm for work) o But once pay is cut, your behaviour to the work will go down - Incentive contrast = no matter what reinforcer you are using, with another reinforcer (bad/good) it will influence your behaviour - Extrinsic vs intrinsic reward - Job motivation (people who do the best job are the ones who enjoy them – interesting, challenging) INTRINSIC - If you do something well but you don’t enjoy it. Say you are a good girl. Internal of extrinsic (not liking it in its own right.) - Lepper: children given chance to draw o 1 Draw  no promise of reward o 2 Draw  reward for good drawing o 3 Draw  unexpected reward - Next week come in to draw again with no instruction. #1 and 3 drew enthusiastically like before, but #2 not - Extrinsic reward (controlling the ndhaviour) reduced their enthusiastic for drawing - Group 2 was bad in drawing in 2 occasion. Group 3 treated differently (the reward was known from the beginning, they are doing things they aren’t normally doing. Drawing things that are judged as good) - When reward is designed to control behaviour, behaviour is less enthusiastic if reward is not there - Unexpected reward = feedback of what you are doing - Hobbies are intrinsically motivated - Delay = if rewards comes immediately after the behaviour (closely related). - If there is a delay, bird presses the bar, looks up to see whether food is here. The behaviour of looking up = interference. (getting reinforced by looking up) - Primary reinforcer = food, shock, sugar water - Secondary reinforcer = gain reinforcer value because it is paired with primary reinforcer. (something that signals reinforcers. Click the bar and hear those noise of the magazine, know the food is coming) o Precedes a primary reinforcer, and is associated with it - Generalized reinforcer = something paired with a number of different reward o Money is associated with a lot of possible reward 15 o Money can buy food, something to drink o Ex: token used in institutional settings -- associated with a lot of rewards (behaviour) - Being in the wolfe box, in 2 different boxes have diff characteristics o In reward delay box, tend to go to that box because it was rewarding - Perkins: (figure 4) - Grice: (figure 5) - Pierereman: marking = pick them up to the box – allow them to do much better o They get picked up, become surprised o The decision to go to the black door  picked up. o The marking process (picked up no matter what choice they make. The fact they are picked up, they pay attention to marking which is the last thing they saw and is right) - Delay = less likely to get learning to the cued that you want them to learn - Bridge delay by rewarding them with secondary reinforcer - Superstition = they think something is important in terms of rewards or potential punishment, but in fact it isn’t o the object has no reinforcing value (“lucky jersey” happened to be there when he scored) - Fixed time schedule FT = FT 12. Every 12s food is dropped in, doesn’t matter what they are doing o Pigeons would either turn around clockwise, or thrust their head up (superstition that these behaviours will cause food to come next time) – cycle of doing something, which is rewarded, strengthened behaviour (SKINNER) - Staddon and Simmelhag: 2 sets of behaviour that were changing in frequency - Skinner’s superstition behaviour: figure 6 o Terminal behaviour = the final behaviour. Appears when they are deprived, food is about to be available. Making a response that they will be making towards the food  pecking behaviour o Interim behaviour = animal is deprived, food is potentially available, but not now  Time filling behaviour = people do thing while they wait (unique for diff individuals) o Each pigeon has its own way of passing time - Adventitious reward = not reward for behaviour, reward for appropriate behaviour when the food is about to come - Thomas: if animal did nothing, FT 20. (figure 7) o Will have to experiment. Reduce the likelihood of getting food when you press bar. But it is associated with food arrival (contiguity) o Positive contingency = press bar and get the food o 0 contingency = press bar and get food. Don’t press and get food. Food comes either way o Negative contingency = press bar and never get the food o Omission training/negative punishment = press bar, you don’t get the food you would normally get  Press bar, food is removed. Chance of getting food is like when you press the bar - Killeen: figure 8 - Possible of reinforcement without awareness (doesn’t require cognition for learning to occur) - Triadic design = ability to control your environment - Helplessness = Seligman – ability to learn to avoid unpleasant stimulus - Yoked control group = if there are 2 individuals. 1 of them receives aspect of treatment (figure 9) - Learned helplessness = something uncontrollable in your life, your behaviour is independent of what happens o Lack of interest o Can do therapy with these dogs (turn on light and turn on shock in the shuttle box, lift up the dog so to the next box) – anti-helplessness training o Move from here to there, so shock wont happen. Learn to associate light with shock o Inability to control thing makes them to response less - Partial reinforcement 16 th - FR fixed ratio = Every 4 response is rewarded FR 4 = elicited at 4. FR 4  very predictable - Cumulative record vs time figure 10 - VR variable ratio = unpredicted response (ex: gambling)  can get it any time (work hard and long enough, it will come) - FI fixed interval = FI 20
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