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PSYC 2210 Lecture Notes - Consumer Reports, Counterintuitive, Behaviorism

Course Code
PSYC 2210

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Lecture #32
Psychotherapy (Part III)
ŸCounterintuitive things to learn and discover about process of psychotherapy
Ÿ1997, when prof was 24, on his first internship, he has his first patient, and a supervisor, one Monday
he arrived to his office and found out his supervisor was gone, so he had this patient with no supervisor
which was extremely alarming, he was as good a therapist when he started as he is today, underlying
art of psychotherapy
ŸPsychotherapy outcome literature, the literature that exists and concerns relative efficacy and
effectiveness of psychotherapy, do people get better, disclosure, revealing oneself, and the role of
disclosure in conveying a narrative, or one’s life story
ŸVarious schools of psychotherapy, three primary forces, psychodynamic, behavioural and humanistic
approaches of trying to remedy a patient
ŸPsychoanalysis, psychodynamic model key ideas is conflict and production of anxiety, and wide range
of defences we have
ŸProcesses of producing change in psychoanalysis, transference is basic process in which patient comes
into office and projects their issues to therapist, and therapist role is to interpret what is going on which
produces resistance and insight
ŸCognitive behavioural approach to change, learning model where there is a situation, behaviours and a
ŸMechanisms we use to produce change, restructuring cognition and beliefs and testing them
(behavioural experiments)
ŸHumanistic approach, how children become equipped with what it is we need to do to attain love, a set
of beliefs and thoughts, which we systematically internalize these principles, to tell us how we should
be in the world to be loved and accepted, many of their traits are hidden and sealed to be accepted,
humanists try to bring these traits out
ŸPoint of the slide is that different therapies seem to be very diverse, from a technical point of view,
what the analyst is doing seems very different from what the behaviourist and what the humanist is
doing, and they believe change is produced in very different ways, what produces symptoms and how
to treat them
ŸWhich form of therapy is the best? Hundred of controlled clinical trials have run these various forms of
therapies together, two different therapies and see which patient is better off, and in conclusion of this
research they sent out a survey to consumer reports to see their various satisfaction, about 7000 readers
responded to the mental health, and the result of the survey was almost identical to the controlled
clinical trials=
ŸEnd result is: all therapy works, you are far better off being in a room with a therapist then in a waiting
room, psychotherapy on the whole works, and all of the therapies seem to be equally effective
ŸYears of experience, level of training, academic background doesn’t change your qualification of being
a therapeutic context, they perform equally well
ŸConclusion form the outcome literature is no differential efficacy despite technical diversity
ŸThis is known as the dodo bird effect, (in Alice in wonderland, the dodo bird was asked to watch the
race but it didn’t watch it and at the end it said that everyone won and should receive prizes)
ŸExplanation for why they are equal is that maybe there are differences that do exist but were not
finding them, all of the studies must be wrong because they cant possibly be equal, were probably not
measuring the changes that are occurring by the patients accurately
ŸAnother reaction to this literature is to say that each of these therapies works, because there is some
substance to the change mechanism, so all of these therapies use a different strategy to produce change
and they are all equally goodàproblem with this is its not likely that three DIFFERENT approaches
are equally valued
ŸThe third reaction is the notion that there is some kind of common factor that cuts across all of the
therapies and accounts for the changes that are occurring, despite of the fact that different therapists
have different ideas of what is producing change, the therapists are wrong, they are using a common
change mechanism without them knowing it, which is what accounts for the treatment of the patients
ŸWhat would be the common factors that produces change?
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