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PSYC 2210 Lecture Notes - Narcissistic Personality Disorder, Mental Disorder, Sigmund Freud

Course Code
PSYC 2210

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Lecture #27
Mental Disorders (Part I)
ŸMental disorders have at the heart that people have abnormal thoughts and behaviours, not entirely
clear what abnormal refers to
ŸFor e.g. abnormality can be a deviation for the average, statistically rare, however this treats all
abnormal behaviours as equally abnormal, genius incurs as much as stupidity, positive deviations and
classified the exact same way as negative deviations, not preferred
ŸAbnormalities reflect deviations from group, developmental or cultural norms, generally accepted
expectations of how we should think, feel and act (behave), abnormalities would then be the failure to
meet those expectations, but the problem is the expectations are changing from one cultural context to
the next, and we would prefer a definition that does not depend on the characteristic thats depend on
the viewer (man or woman, young or old, all with different expectations)
ŸSpecify an ideal for mental health, a standard, and say that abnormality is the failure to achieve that
idea, on the basis of a theory, this is what good mental health looks like, so abnormality is the failure to
show that mental health (e.g. sense of personal integration, healthy person has well integrated ego,
superego and id, ability to cope with stress, see things in the world as they are, unconditional sense of
self acceptance)
Ÿ Many theories of what a person is and looks like, but all of these standards together is a depiction of
functioning which none of us can achieve, meaning we are all abnormal
ŸAbnormality is what is personally distressing about us, this definition covers a lot of ground, almost
every disorder in encyclopaedia or dictionary involves a type of distress
ŸProblem is its ALMOST all, there are occasions where there are abnormal behaviours where there is no
distress, for e.g. narcissism, abnormal behaviour in which narcissists aren’t bothered by their
behaviour, odd but not distressing to the person
ŸPragmatic point of view, you will not be locked up and towed away just because you have odd
thoughts, delusions or odd thoughts, once you become bothersome to other people, then they lock you
up, extremely important quality, abnormality and mental health have an interpersonal quality
ŸNarcissistic personality disorder, they are not bothered about it, but their attitude annoys everyone else
that makes him abnormal, similar with anti-personality disorder
ŸFinal notion critical is impairment, whatever abnormality is, it involves failure of a functioning, ability
to thrive in personal, occupational of social domains, at the end of the day, a very critical idea
ŸTo what extent do the symptoms you experience, impair your behaviour in love, friendships, etc.
ŸYou are no disordered from the dsm point of view, unless your social (14 minute)
ŸAll of these definitions tap into what we think about mental disorders, we are talking about
infrequencies, negative ideas of social standards, etc.
ŸLot of theories about what caused abnormality, psychodynamic model originating with Sigmund
Freud, what we see constituting for abnormal behaviour most likely is an issue of the unconscious to
the personality between id, superego or ego. (source of anxiety, or other frameworks, hidden
underlying unconscious problems)
ŸCognitive-behavioural model, learning theorist point of view, we expect normal behaviour to be
learned, because they learn to act that way, abnormal behaviours are discouraged or punished, what is
the reinforcement behaviour of this individual
ŸHumanistic-existentialist model, abnormal behaviour as a failure to receive unconditional positive
regard, like from or parents, failure to become a fully complete, functioning person
ŸThe most prevailing widely used model, is the medical model, most prevalent model for describing
mental disorder (inappropriate application), explains symptoms by postulating disease, you see signs of
symptoms and the explanation for that is a disease, and the disease is different from the symptoms
Ÿe.g. you have symptoms of exhaustion, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, runny nose, and the
explanation is the flu, the cause of the symptoms
ŸThis works in all sorts of domains, all sorts of tests to indicate diseases, but this is th esame framework
used for disordred behaviour, so when you ask why is she sad, its because she has depression, the
disease entity that explains sadness
ŸWhy is that wrong? Int aht case, the symptom and disease is wrong, why is she sad? She has
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