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PSYC 2210 (36)
Lecture

chapterr5learning.rtf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2210
Professor
Tony Neild
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 5 thomas brown: the more frequently two stimuli are paired the more strongly will an individual associate the two The Blocking Effect (KAMIN) - capital letters represent different CS - + and - represent presence and absence of the US group phase 1 phase 2 Test phase Results T elicits no Blocking L+ LT+ T CR Control - (no stimuli) LT+ T T elicits a CR - conditioning is not an automatic result when a CS and US are paired -conditioning will occur only if it is informative, only if it is predictive of something important such as an upcoming shock - the subject is a selective learner, learning about informative stimuli and ignoring informative ones The Rescorla Wagner Model -designed to predict the outcome of classical conditioning procedures on a trial by trial basis -for any trial in which one or more CS is presented, the model assumes that there can be either excitatory, inhibitory, or no conditioning - two factors determine which of these three possibilities actually occurs 1) the strength of the subjects expectation of what will occur 2) the strength of the US that is actually presented Rules: 1) if the strength of the actual US is greater than the strength of the subjects expectation, all of the CS that were paired with the US will receive some excitatory conditioning 2) if the strength of the actual Us is less than the subjects expectation, all of the Cs that were paired with the US will receive some inhibitory condoning 3) if the strength of the Us is equal to expectation, no conditioning 4) the larger the discrepancy, the greater the conditioning 5) more salient CS will condition faster 6) if 2 or more CS presented together , the subjects expectation will be equal to their total strength Acquisition -fastest growth in excitatory conditioning occurs on the first trial, and there is less and less additional conditioning as the trial proceed -the actual US is greater than the expected US, so there is excitatory conditioning ( an increase in the strength of the US-CS association) -amount of conditioning is not as great in later trials as on the first trial Blocking -there is no learning on conditioning trial of the expected US is equal to actual US -no conditioning occurs to the added CS because there is no surprise- the strength of the subjects expectation matchs the strength of the CS - when 2 CS are presented together , the subjects expectation is based on the total expectation from the two- a new stimulus has no expectation associated with it Extinction and Conditioned inhibition -during extinction the expected US is greater than the actual US, so there is inhibitory conditioning (a decrease in the strength of the CS_US association) Overshadowing occurs because the amount of conditioning depends on the salience of the stimulus - if one stimulus is more intense than another there will be a larger association Over expectation effect - when two separately conditioned stimuli are together, the expected US is greater than the actual US, inhibitory conditioning Theories of CS effectiveness CS preexposure effect when a subject is preexposed to a stimuli, what that subject learns in preexposure hinders their ability to develop a US-CS association when the two stimuli are paired in at a later time -habituation ocurrs in the CS preexposure, because the CS is presented repeatedly but initially predicts nothing, the subject begins to gradually pay less and less attention to this stimulus -ignore stimulus because it is not informative, the subject then takes longer to associate this stimulus with the US when the conditioning trials begin and the stimuli becomes informative MAckintosh's theory of Attention assumes that the salience of a stimuli changes with experience - the subject will attend to the more informative stimulus -the salience of the more informative stimuli wi
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