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PSYC2030 - Sensation and Perception Chapter 1

5 Pages

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PSYC 2220
Jennifer Steeves

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Ben Kim PSYC2030 – Sensation & Perception Page 1 of 5 Sensation and Perception Lecture 1 - Sensory Processing • Sensory Environment • Sensory Receptor Organs o Filters of the environment  Detect and respond to some events (stimulus) and not others. o Receptor Cells  Transduce stimuli into electrical signals • Perceptual System o Brain makes sense of action potentials o Produces Conscious Percept • Sensory systems of particular animals have a restricted range of responsiveness o Function o Evolution The Language of the Central Nervous System • Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies: o Nature of a sensation depends on which sensory fibers are stimulated, not on how the fibers are stimulated o Labeled Line Coding Vision • Dominant sense for humans o One-third of human cerebral cortex is devoted to visual analysis and perception o Ventriloquism and McGurk effects • Perception of form and identification of objects is complex • Colour is a creation of the visual system • Brightness is a creation of the visual system • Motion enhances the perception of objects What is Light? • Wave or Particle? • Light can be: o Absorbed o Scattered o Reflected o Transmitted o Refracted Ben Kim PSYC2030 – Sensation & Perception Page 2 of 5 • Human 400-700nm where quanta are known as photons o 100W bulb = 8 x 10^18 photons/sec The Visual System • The Eye o Sphere with a diameter of approx. 24mm o Optical device - capturing lights and forming spatial images o Neural Organ – transduces light into neural signals and processes thempherical shape of eye • Sclera o Maintain spherical shape of eye o Oculomuscle attachment (move you eye) o Restricts light transmission • Cornea o 2/3 of bending of light o Astigmatism when miss-shapen • Iris – Pigmented muscles at back of anterior chamber o Constrict pupil o Dilate pupil • Pupil – just a hole in the iris o Minimize amount of light entering the eye o Increased depth of field i.e. distance over which objects are in sharp focus. • Lens o Transparent o Elongated fibers, arranged like the fibres of an onion o Completes task of bringing light waves into focus on photoreceptors • Optical device – focusing light o Controls amount of light  Changes diameter of pupil under control of sympathetic parasympathetic nervous system  Refraction • Cornea • Lens • Visual processing o Retina  Light-sensitive membrane (photoreceptors) • Rods • Cones • Fovea Centralis (concentration of cones)  Receive an image from lens and sends it to the brain through the optic nerve • Posterior chamber o Contains vitreous humor Ben Kim PSYC2030 – Sensation & Perception Page 3 of 5  Jelly-like substance which helps to maintain shape of eyeball and supplies nutrients to the retina  Gloaters Ben Kim PSYC2030 – Sensation & Perception Page 4 of 5 o Choriod  Web of arteries an veins behind retina  Absorbs extra light
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