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Motivation Psych 2230

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2230
Professor
Peter Papadogiannis
Semester
Fall

Description
tuesday▯September▯18,▯2012 Lecture▯#2▯Motivation ▯▯Chapter▯1▯Motivation▯▯▯What▯is▯it? B)▯to▯explain▯differences▯in▯intensity▯of▯behaviour▯(more▯intense▯behaviour▯more ▯motivation) ▯▯if▯a▯behaviour▯looks▯weak▯there▯might▯be▯other▯compiting▯motiv es▯influencing▯the▯behaviour. C)to▯describe▯the▯direction▯of▯behaviour. ▯▯not▯at▯random,▯organized. ▯some▯times▯we▯are▯confronted▯with▯a▯situation▯were▯we▯dont▯know▯the▯exa ct▯direction▯a▯person▯should▯be▯taking. d)▯to▯explain▯why▯behaviour▯occurs▯in▯one▯situation▯and▯not▯in▯others. ▯why▯we▯act▯in▯such▯way▯in▯some▯situations▯and▯differently▯in▯other▯soci al▯situations.▯ ▯be▯more▯asertive▯in▯one▯situation▯and▯less▯in▯another. E)increase▯abilityto▯predict▯behaviour. ii)Measure▯of▯motivation:▯never▯measure▯directly▯but▯inferred▯on▯basis▯of▯what▯o rganism▯does▯following▯manipulation. A)▯manipulate▯some▯stimulus▯condition▯and▯observe▯resulting▯behaviour. e.g:▯page▯5▯rat▯in▯maze▯experiment▯(S▯R▯) STIMULUS=▯deprivation▯of▯food▯ HUNGER▯MOTIVE▯=▯goes▯up. RESPONSE=▯move▯fast▯through▯the▯maze▯to▯get▯to▯the▯goal▯ ▯▯develop▯of▯cognitive▯map▯of▯the▯box...▯development▯of▯expectation,▯ani mal▯slows▯ down▯when▯moving▯through▯the▯maze▯due▯to▯the▯fact▯that▯it▯is▯alr eady▯satisfied. ▯after▯trial▯30▯animal▯doesnt▯want▯to▯move▯throught▯the▯maze...▯not▯hunf ry▯ anymore..there▯is▯no▯novelty,▯it▯knows▯the▯maze. ▯▯we▯motivated▯through,▯novelty,▯exploration,▯manipulation,▯communicatio n,▯ interaction,▯achievement▯motivation,▯power▯motivation...▯controlling▯thi ngs. ▯we▯dont▯always▯drink▯or▯eat▯beacasue▯of▯a▯biological▯variable..▯there▯a re▯external▯ variables▯that▯come▯into▯account...▯external▯variables,▯psycholo gical... ▯stimulus▯hunger...▯the▯need▯for▯changes▯in▯motivation,▯variation..▯whic h▯accounts▯ for▯many▯of▯the▯choices▯that▯we▯make▯on▯a▯daily▯basis. ▯stimulus▯▯control...▯surfing▯through▯channels,▯turning▯on▯and▯off▯light s. ▯OCD▯people▯are▯not▯interested▯in▯anything▯else▯but▯that▯thing▯which▯the y▯are▯fixated▯ with...▯they▯are▯not▯able▯to▯break▯away▯from▯one▯stimulus,▯intea d▯they▯are▯fixated▯to▯it. B)▯Deprive▯organism▯of▯food▯an▯dobserve▯food▯getting▯behaviour. C)Measure▯hours▯without▯food▯(deprivation)▯and▯measure▯eed▯of▯running▯fr om▯start▯box▯to▯goal▯box▯in▯maze. ▯once▯one▯requirement▯is▯staisfied▯(hunger)▯another▯requirement▯ comes▯up▯that▯ needs▯to▯be▯satisfied▯(figure▯ground▯)▯until▯we▯arrive▯a t▯closure..full▯satisfaction. D)▯motivation▯is▯a▯change▯in▯behaviour▯that▯occurs▯following▯deprivation▯is▯infe rred▯from▯behaviour▯before▯and▯after▯deprivation.▯ E)▯motivation▯is▯an▯intervening▯variable▯that▯comes▯between▯the▯stimulus▯and▯the ▯response. stimulus▯▯▯▯>▯intervening▯variable▯▯▯▯▯>response F)motivation▯serves▯to▯link▯the▯stimulus▯variable▯()▯and▯the▯response▯variable▯( speed▯of▯running) G)▯fig▯1.1▯page▯5 H)▯motivation▯is▯a▯performance▯variable:▯when▯enough▯exists,▯behaviour▯is▯perfor med.▯▯▯▯ I)▯motivation▯processes▯are▯analyzed▯in▯terms▯of▯its▯evidence▯in▯performance▯(be haviour)▯processes. III)PHYLOSOPHICAL▯ROOTS▯of▯motivational▯psychology: ▯free▯will▯vs.▯determinism:▯are▯we▯free▯to▯choose▯or▯are▯our▯choices▯determined▯ by▯external▯and▯internal▯forces▯that▯we▯are▯not▯aware▯of?▯how▯much▯free▯will▯do▯ we▯have? ▯the▯simples▯behaviour▯that▯we▯are▯able▯to▯performe▯is▯a▯reflex.▯e.g▯apgar▯refle x▯on▯new▯borns. determinism▯is▯more▯like▯a▯mechanistic▯model▯whether▯free▯will▯is▯more▯cognitive ...▯ational. A)▯motivation▯is▯a▯blend▯of▯philosophical▯and▯[hysiological▯concepts. B)aristotle:▯ideas▯that▯soul▯is▯free▯and▯mind▯at▯birth▯is▯blank.▯if▯soul▯is▯free ▯the▯we▯have▯choice.▯(inderteminism).▯Motivational▯psychology▯has▯chosen▯to▯see▯ soul▯as▯determined▯by▯inner▯and▯outer▯forces.▯some▯condition▯,ust▯exist▯before▯b ehaviour▯is▯motivated▯to▯ur.▯some▯antecedent▯condition▯that▯leads▯to▯responding. C)▯MIND▯AS▯A▯BLANK▯SLATE:▯Aristotle's▯positionthat▯there▯are▯no▯prefigured▯ideas ▯prior▯to▯experience▯has▯fluenced▯psychology▯in▯terms▯of▯learning▯theory.▯Thus▯b ehaviour▯(knowledge)▯is▯derived▯from▯sensory▯experience▯and▯thus▯experience▯▯or▯ nurture▯is▯the▯major▯force▯underlying▯behaviour.▯Heredity▯may▯provide▯some▯ready ▯made▯behaviours▯▯reflexes▯and▯instinctual▯pstterns▯▯▯but▯it▯is▯experience,▯trai ning,and▯conditioning▯that▯provides▯all▯else. D)▯Descartes:▯(1500)▯dualistic▯thery▯of▯human▯nature:▯human▯behaviour▯is▯partly▯ free▯(partly▯the▯result▯of▯rational▯soul▯acting)▯and▯partly▯determined▯(▯the▯res ult▯of▯automatic▯non▯rational▯processes▯of▯the▯body).▯thus▯motivated▯behaviour▯r esults▯form▯the▯exercise▯of▯the▯soul▯(will)▯▯▯▯>▯cognitive▯psych...and▯bodily▯pt ocesses▯(instincts)▯▯▯>ethologist...Freud▯psychoanalitic... 1.▯Decartes'▯ach▯is▯a▯mechanistic▯one▯▯conceptualizong▯▯the▯action▯of▯an imals▯as▯aexclusively▯ non▯rational▯()▯and▯some▯part▯of▯human▯behaviour▯as▯well . 2.humans▯have▯a▯soul▯therefore▯they▯have▯will▯or▯minfin▯the▯determinatio n▯of▯actions▯and▯ 3.human▯behaviour▯is▯a▯blend▯of▯non▯rational▯and▯rational▯forces▯acting▯ to▯initiate▯direct▯ behaviour. E)▯LOCKE:▯importance▯of▯sensory▯experience▯and▯association▯of▯ideas. ▯ASSOCIATION▯BY▯SIMILARITY ASSOCIATION▯BY▯DIFFERENCE ASSOCIATION▯BY▯CONTIGUITY▯ A.▯locke▯proposed▯that▯ideas▯are▯the▯basic▯units▯of▯mind▯and▯that▯these▯ ideas▯came▯from▯experience▯in▯two▯ways:▯1)▯SENSORY▯and▯the▯conversion▯of▯physica l▯sensory▯energy▯into▯experience▯and▯2)REFLECTION▯or▯when▯the▯mind▯on▯its▯own▯ma nipulates▯knowledges▯amd▯arrives▯at▯new▯ideas. B.▯ideas▯may▯be▯simple▯or▯complex▯and▯complex▯ideas▯are▯the▯result▯of▯th e▯association▯of▯simpler▯ideas,▯therefore▯can▯be▯reduced▯to▯ther▯simple▯units. C.▯in▯psychlogy▯we▯have▯the▯association▯of▯stimulus▯to▯stimulus▯as▯in▯cl assical▯conditioning,▯and▯stimulus▯and▯response▯as▯inoperant▯conditioning▯and▯re sponse▯to▯consequence▯(reward) D.▯in▯the▯case▯of▯human▯motivation,▯fear▯as▯motivating▯force▯may▯be▯lear ned▯by▯pairing▯neutral▯stimulus,▯(bell)▯with▯an▯effective▯stimulus▯(shock)▯and▯e ventually▯the▯no▯longer▯neutral▯stimulus▯(bell)▯is▯capable▯of▯eliciting▯fear▯as▯ a▯motivating▯force▯in▯behaviour.▯(pg.150▯154) IV)▯PHYSIOLOGICAL▯ROOTS:▯based▯on▯notion▯of▯sensory▯nerves▯which▯carry▯informati on▯from▯sense▯organs▯to▯the▯brain,▯and▯out▯▯goiing▯motor▯nerves▯that▯carry▯infor mation▯(commands)▯to▯the▯muscles▯to▯act.▯the▯concept▯of▯reflex▯is▯an▯outgrowth▯o f▯this▯notion▯(S▯R) A.GALEN:▯130200AD....▯put▯forward▯the▯sensory▯motor▯idea▯and▯Bell▯in▯the ▯early▯1880's▯studied▯sensory▯and▯motor▯nerve▯activity,▯as▯did▯Magendie▯,▯reveal ing▯that▯there▯are▯separate▯sensory▯and▯motor▯nerves▯specialized▯to▯carry▯inform ation▯in▯and▯out▯of▯the▯nervous▯system▯(pg.▯17) B.DOCTRINE▯OF▯SPECIFIC▯NERVE▯ENERGIES:▯proposed▯by▯Muller▯in▯mid▯1800s▯i t▯sais▯that▯nerves▯carry▯specific▯coded▯informationand▯these▯codes▯account▯for▯d ifferent▯sensory▯▯exoeriences▯such▯as▯darka▯nd▯light,▯hot▯and▯cold.▯the▯nervous▯ system▯is▯an▯active▯interpreter,▯rather▯than▯passive▯conduit▯of▯info. C.ELECTRICAL▯NERVE▯IMPULSES▯:▯Galvani▯(1700')▯discovered▯that▯when▯a▯leg ▯muscle▯twitches,▯it▯suggests▯that▯energy▯flows▯through▯nerves▯and▯may▯be▯electr ical▯in▯nature▯adn▯DuBois▯Reymond▯irmed▯this▯in▯mid▯1800s.▯Helmhotz▯meaasured▯sp eed▯of▯nerve▯conduction▯to▯be▯less▯n▯100▯miles▯per▯hour,▯in▯the▯mid▯to▯late▯1800 s.▯Gall▯in▯the▯mid▯1800s▯that▯there▯where▯fic▯mental▯abilities▯located▯at▯differ ent▯regions▯of▯the▯brain.▯this▯gave▯raise▯to▯phrenology▯which▯has▯been▯discredit ed▯but▯the▯idea▯of▯localization▯of▯the▯brain▯function▯has▯been▯confirmed.▯for▯ex ample▯the▯hypothalamus▯is▯a▯region▯in▯the▯limbic▯system▯that▯is▯important▯in▯und erstanding▯motivation....▯such▯as▯feeding,▯drinking,▯sleeping,▯emotions▯and▯sexu al▯activity.▯in▯the▯1950's▯Olds▯and▯Milner▯discovered▯that▯in▯the▯septal▯region▯ (limbic▯system)stimulation▯of▯it▯with▯electricity▯mobilized▯rats▯to▯bar▯press▯fo r▯this▯stimulation.▯they▯believed▯to▯have▯discovered▯a▯"pleasure▯centre".▯Broca, ▯a▯FRench▯anatomist,▯discovered▯in▯the▯1800s▯an▯area▯in▯the▯lefthemisphere▯of▯th e▯brain,▯that▯when▯damaged▯lead▯to▯aphasia▯or▯the▯inability▯to▯profuce▯speech. V.CHARACTERISTICS▯OF▯MOTIVATION: A.▯activating▯properties:▯activation▯leads▯to▯production▯of▯overt▯behavi our▯taken▯as▯evidence▯of▯motivation.▯covert▯nehavior▯such▯as▯changes▯in▯physiolo gical▯measures:▯EEG,▯eart▯rate,▯blood▯preassure,▯psychogalvanic▯skin▯response▯(s weat)▯also▯used. B.persistnce:▯continuous▯eefort▯expended▯in▯motivated▯organism. C.vigor:▯motivated▯behaviour▯is▯forceful▯behaviour.▯vigorous▯responding▯ may▯also▯be▯learned. D.directionality:▯motivated▯behaviour▯s▯direction▯and▯not▯aimless.▯what▯ count▯for▯changes▯in▯direction?▯one▯way▯is▯to▯provide▯a▯preference▯test:▯give▯a▯ numberof▯alternative▯solutions▯of▯sugar▯for▯example,▯and▯see▯which▯solution▯the▯ organism▯diverts▯its▯attention▯too. lecture▯#4 1.▯Early▯instinct▯theories:▯page▯42▯onwards▯ instinct▯as▯explanation▯for▯motivated▯behaviours▯reached▯popularity▯during▯later ▯1800s▯and▯early▯1900s.▯instinct▯acted▯as▯a▯l▯bridge▯between▯human▯and▯animal.▯i nstincts▯are▯genetically▯programmed▯and▯occur▯automatically▯under▯required▯circu mstances.▯it▯is▯innate,▯inborn.▯stimulus▯or▯stimuli▯provoking▯a▯response.▯prepar ed▯to▯respond▯to▯an▯stimulus▯automatically. A.▯nominal▯fallacy:sImply▯naming▯somthing▯an▯instinct▯does▯not▯explain▯t he▯behaviour...▯although▯popular▯instinct▯theories▯were▯found▯to▯be▯scientifical ly▯sound▯because▯merely▯naming▯a▯behaviour▯as▯this▯or▯that▯instinct▯does▯not▯exp lain▯it.▯rather▯it▯is▯necessary▯to▯specify▯the▯conditions▯under▯which▯behaviour▯ occurs,▯to▯arrive▯at▯a▯cause▯effect▯relationship. B▯William▯James:▯instincts▯are▯similar▯to▯reflexes▯in▯that▯they▯occur▯"b lindly"▯meaning▯automatically▯without▯knowledge▯or▯end▯or▯goal.▯since▯every▯inst inct▯is▯an▯"impulse",▯it▯falls▯within▯the▯province▯of▯motivational▯psychology. 1.▯for▯James,▯this▯impulses▯to▯action▯may▯be▯inhibited▯by▯learne d▯habits,▯and▯some▯instincts▯are▯transitory;▯only▯useful▯during▯certain▯developm ental▯periods▯and▯eventually▯become▯▯e.g:▯when▯we▯hold▯an▯impulse▯to▯action:▯we▯ think▯before▯we▯speak...▯we▯are▯conscious▯of▯what▯we▯are▯going▯to▯do▯and▯are▯abl e▯the▯restrain▯some▯impulses▯using▯our▯rationale.▯▯expressions:▯bite▯your▯tongue ,▯think▯before▯you▯speak,▯look▯before▯you▯leap. 2.Instincts▯provide▯base▯upon▯which▯new▯behaviours▯may▯be▯built. 3.Instincts▯are▯adaptive▯and▯have▯come▯about▯during▯courses▯of▯e volution,▯▯two▯main▯types▯of▯instinct:▯self▯preservation▯instinct▯and▯species▯pr eservation▯instinct. C.▯WILLIAM▯MCDOUGALL:▯psychology▯must▯discover▯and▯classify▯various▯inst incts.▯each▯instinct▯consists▯of▯three▯components:▯(page▯44) a.▯COGNITIVE:▯meaning▯the▯knowing▯aspect▯that▯he▯object▯can▯sati sfy▯an▯instinct b.▯AFFECTIVE:▯meaning▯the▯feeling▯an▯object▯arouses.▯in▯addition ▯to▯feeling▯the▯object,▯the▯thinking,▯dreaming,▯planning▯or▯imagining▯of▯the▯obj ect▯might▯also▯arouse▯the▯organism. c.▯CONATIVE:▯meaning▯striving▯toward▯or▯away▯from▯an▯object.▯bas ed▯on▯our▯prior▯experience▯an▯object▯might▯or▯might▯not▯cause▯us▯to▯approach▯it. ..▯if▯we▯are▯not▯comfortable▯with▯it▯we▯might▯avoid▯the▯object. Thus,▯every▯instinct▯consist▯of▯thoughts▯about▯the▯goal▯object;▯the▯emot ions▯aroused▯by▯that▯object▯;▯and▯purposive▯striving▯aimed▯at▯reaching▯that▯obje ct. MCDOUGALL'S▯ALTERATION▯OF▯INSTINCT▯IN▯FOUR▯WAYS: A.▯Instinct▯may▯be▯activated▯by▯an▯object▯or▯the▯idea▯of▯the▯obj ect▯and▯by▯related▯objects. B.▯movements▯through▯which▯instinctive▯behaviour▯occurs▯can▯be▯m odified,▯such▯as▯curiosity▯at▯first▯is▯directed▯toward▯the▯physical▯environment▯ and▯later▯by▯more▯intellectual▯pursuits.▯how▯children▯around▯8▯years▯of▯age▯want ▯to▯▯have▯superiority▯to▯adults▯by▯saying▯that▯they▯know▯something▯that▯we▯don't ▯know▯"mind▯games"▯riddles▯and▯jokes. C.▯several▯instincts▯may▯be▯triggered▯and▯resulting▯behaviour▯a▯ blend▯of▯the▯excited▯instincts▯such▯a▯sexual▯behaviour▯is▯a▯blend▯of▯curiosity▯a nd▯mating▯instincts. D.▯finally▯instincts▯may▯be▯organised▯around▯certain▯objects▯or▯ ideas▯and▯become▯less▯responsive▯to▯other▯objects.▯thus▯self▯▯▯assertive▯at▯work ▯and▯submissive▯at▯home...▯similar▯to▯the▯concept▯of▯fixation,▯which▯is▯not▯alwa ys▯a▯bad▯thing,▯i▯might▯be▯fixated▯to▯something▯that▯delights▯us▯e;g:▯fallingin▯ love,▯we▯become▯fixated▯in▯the▯object▯of▯our▯affection. MCDOUGALL'S▯METHOD▯OF▯ANALYSIS▯WAS:▯ANTHROPOMORPHIC▯▯▯he▯ascribed▯human▯ qualities▯to▯animals▯asking▯how▯he▯would▯feel▯if▯he▯was▯in▯the▯same▯situation▯as ▯the▯animal. D.CRITICISMS▯OF▯INSTICT▯THEORY:▯KUO▯(1921)▯attempted▯to▯demolish ▯the▯concept▯of▯instinct▯because: 1)▯no▯agreement▯on▯types▯of▯or▯how▯many▯instinct▯exist. 2)Behaviors▯called▯instincts▯are▯learned▯since▯all▯behaviours▯is▯built▯o n▯random▯responses,▯some▯of▯which▯are▯reinforced▯and▯retained,▯others▯not▯an▯dar e▯extinguished. 3)▯Behaviour▯is▯aroused▯by▯external▯stimuli▯rather▯han▯the▯result▯of▯gen etic▯programming.▯ additional▯pages▯to▯know▯357▯362 key▯concepts▯pages▯46▯51 keyfixation▯patterns consumatory▯behaviour conflict▯behaviour action▯specific▯energy key▯stimuli lecture▯#▯5 imprinting:▯socialization▯process▯in▯which▯a▯young▯organism▯for▯an▯attachment▯to ▯its▯parents.▯a▯socialization▯process▯involving▯instinctive▯and▯learned▯componen ts.▯following▯responses▯in▯newborn▯animals▯reveal▯that▯during▯a▯critical▯sensiti ve▯period▯the▯organism▯is▯most▯likely▯to▯effortlessly▯exhibit▯the▯motor▯pattern. A.▯LORENZ▯described▯major▯characteristics▯of▯imprinting: 1.▯the▯attachment▯process▯occurs▯during▯a▯limited▯period▯in▯orgaism's▯li fe.▯strength▯of▯imprinting▯peaks▯during▯critical▯period.▯period▯of▯time▯when▯the ▯organism▯is▯more▯subseptible▯to▯be▯imprinted. 2.▯Imprinting▯process▯is▯irreversible.▯thus,▯once▯established▯it▯does▯no t▯extinguish▯and▯later▯sexual▯preferences▯of▯adults▯results▯from▯this▯attachment .▯early▯attachment▯to▯own▯species▯leads▯to▯sexual▯attraction▯to▯one▯of▯our▯own▯s pecies. 3.▯imprinting▯is▯independent▯from▯external▯reward.▯it▯is▯an▯automatic▯pr ocess▯rather▯than▯a▯trial▯and▯error▯one.▯ HUMAN▯ETHOLOGY:▯▯some▯to▯many▯behaviours▯patterns▯are▯innate. 1▯FACIAL▯EXPRESSIONS▯seems▯to▯be▯universal▯and▯not▯learned.▯smiling,▯lau ghing,▯weeping.▯found▯in▯all▯cultures.▯deaf▯children▯smile▯when▯happy▯and▯▯frown ▯or▯cry▯when▯unhappy.▯same▯with▯blind▯children.▯related▯to▯facial▯expressions▯is ▯the▯EYEBROW▯FLICK▯upon▯greeting▯and▯acquaintance▯and▯may▯represent▯a▯signal▯of▯ recognition▯and▯acceptance.▯happiness▯and▯surprise▯are▯the▯easiest▯facial▯expres sions▯to▯recognize,▯even▯at▯a▯long▯distance▯from▯the▯observed. 2.▯SHYNESS:▯extreme▯shyness▯may▯have▯genetic▯components▯expressed▯in▯dif ferences▯in▯arousability.▯low▯level▯of▯arousability▯may▯be▯related▯to▯social▯inh ibition.▯kagan▯and▯▯others▯suggest▯that▯tendency▯toward▯shyness▯requires▯a▯chron ic▯form▯of▯stress▯such▯as▯being▯later▯born▯and▯being▯exposed▯to▯older▯siblings▯w ho▯tease▯and▯yell.▯this▯may▯trigger▯behavioural▯inhibition.▯thus,▯genetic▯dispos ition▯to▯behave▯in▯a▯given▯way▯may▯require▯some▯environmental▯circumstances▯to▯t rigger▯this▯disposition 3.KEY▯STIMULI:▯such▯as▯physical▯features▯of▯human▯infant▯release▯adult▯h uman▯instinctive▯behaviour.▯these▯key▯stimuli▯in▯the▯form▯of▯actions▯and▯manner▯ of▯the▯infant▯have▯survival▯value.▯ 4.FLIRTING:▯▯as▯a▯type▯of▯ritualized▯foreplay▯involves▯both▯approach▯and ▯avoidance▯components▯which▯certainly▯obtain▯the▯notice▯of▯the▯other.▯when▯our▯o wn▯words▯fail▯we▯use▯someone▯else's▯words..▯songs,▯poems,▯love▯cards. 5.▯KISSING:▯is▯a
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