CHAPTER 5: CONDITIONING, LEARNING, AND MOTIVATION (textbook) III. Learning: Several types of learning influence the development of motives. Motivated behaviours are acquired and directed by learning. A. Pavlovian or Respondent conditioning: A procedure whereby formerly neutral stimuli gain control over behaviour. Through a pairin procedure of Conditioned Stimulus (CS) and Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS), the CS motivates the organism to respond in a manner similar to the way it responds to the UC. Prior to conditioning the CS had no motivating effect on the organisms behaviour. 1. The motivating properties of the CS are acquired by association with the UCS 2. Previously neutral stimuli acquire motivational and emotional significance. 3. The association that is established between the CS and the UCS is called a stimulus stimulus association (or SS association): a. Neutral Stimulus (NS) No, Response b. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) UCR c. Pairing: NS and UCS Yes, Response to UCS NS (Alone) Yes, Response to CS NS became a CS leading to CR a. CS activates the UCS process which is connected to a response a: CS UCS Response The UCS process mediates the resultant CR. 4. Experimental neurosis: Difficult discrimination training led to loss of previously established conditioned responses (CRs) and the inability to acquire new conditioned responses. Difficult conditioning tasks become aversive and lead to disruption in overall personality of the animal hence, experimental neurosis. II. Classical conditioning is associated with the acquisition of motivational states. Watson and Rayners (1920) study of Little Albert showed that a 10 month old child could form a conditioned emotional reaction to previously neutral stimuli. Woodworth pointed out: The drive state has direction leading to approach, and in Little Alberts case, avoidance of previously neutral stimuli that were paired with an aversive UCS. Motivated behaviours may be eliminated through conditioning. A. Counterconditioning: Rachlin (1976) showed that pairing the aversive CS with a strongly positive UCS leads the CS to elicit new, positive responses. B. Systematic desensitization: Wolpe (1958) showed that by learning a relaxation response, this positive response may be attached to stimuli which previously elicited negative CRs.