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Motivational Psychology chapter 5 text.docx
Motivational Psychology chapter 5 text.docx

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York University
PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

Motivational Psychology – Chapter 5 Textbook Learned Motives: Classical, Instrumental and Observational Learning  Our motives can be developed and directed simply through observation  Many motivated behaviours are acquired or directed by learning Pavlovian Classical Conditioning  Classical conditioning: neural stimulus gains a response from an organism because it has been associated with some other stimulus (usually automatically) elicited that response in the past.  Dog experiment: he presented meat powder and a neural stimulus (a bell) together to the dog. The meat powder made the dog begin to salivate but after a few pairings of the bell and meat powder the bell alone began to make the dog salivate.  Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) - Effect on behaviour is unlearned or automatic - Meat powder  Unconditioned Response (UCR) - Unlearned response to the UCS - Salvation response to the meat powder  Conditioned Stimulus (CS) - Originally a neutral which develops a response - The bell  Conditioned Response (CR) - Learning was involved with response to CS - Salvation - Develops under a few pairings of the UCS and CS ( after a few times the meat powder and bell are paired together the dog begins to salivate and learns that the bell is associated with the meat powder)  Organism is passive in the learning process (learning will happen whether we want it to or not)  Some maladaptive behaviours are not a result of classical conditioning Experimental Neurosis  Experiment to determine the dogs ability to discriminate between shapes of different objects  Generated by the organisms lack of predictability or controllability  The ability to predict and control ones environment seems to have important motivational properties.  Classical conditioning can lead to the development of motivation and emotion  Made a young boy scared of a white rat by pairing the rat which a striking loud noise (the formerly neutral stimulus –white rat now produced emotional and motivated behaviour the boy tried to crawl away from the rat because he was scared of it)  A few days later the exposed the young boy to similar objects such as a rabbit and dog with white fur for all the young boy began to cry and attempted to crawl away.  The boys emotions were generalized to anything that looked familiar to the white rat  As more time went on when the boy was exposed to similar objects his emotions were less intense Elimination of Motivated Behaviours Through Conditioning  Mary Cover Jones was able to eliminate fear reaction to furry objects to a three year old boy  Pairing the fear object with a positive UCS (something pleasant)  She proved that classical conditioning could be used to reduce fears as well as produce them  Observational learning could do the same (imitation of others that do not fear the object)  Counterconditioning: negative CS is paired with a strongly positive UCS ( the negative response is replaced with a positive one)  Systematic Densensitization: taught to relax on command while given a list of anxiety producing situations that involve the CS is made.  learn to be relaxed while thinking about anxiety arousing situations (the person becomes densensitized) Interoceptive Conditioning -Razran  Classical conditioning in which either the CS, UCS or both are applied directly to the internal organs or the mucosa  3 types: a) Intero-Exteroceptive Conditioning: CS is applied internally, while the UCS is applied externally. b) Intero-Interoceptive Conditioning: when both the CS and the UCS are applied internally c) Extero-Interoceptive Conditioning: when an external CS is paired with an internal UCS  Implications: - We are usually unaware of interoceptive conditioning when it occurs - Interoceptive conditioning cannot really be avoided - Interoceptive conditioning is more permanent - Has important implications for psychosomatic medicine Learned Aversions  Aka long-delay learning or taste aversion  Emphasizes the motivational nature of learned behaviours  Reason why rats are so hard to poison  once poisoned rats will avoid the bait that made them ill (taste cues are associated with illness)  Biological constraints on what can be learned  Prepared associations: easily and quickly associated  Contraprepared associations: associations that the organism cannot learn  Between the two extremes = unprepared associations  Preparedness hypothesis : different species will have evolved different prepared, unprepared and contraprepared associations as a result of evolution  Learned aversions are strong motivational properties for future behaviour Learned Taste Aversions in Cancer Patients  A lot of cancer patients lose their appetite  Bernstein wanted to determine whether the loss of appetite was learned aversion that was a result of associating the taste of food with the nausea side effects of chemotherapy Instrumental Conditioning  Instrumental or operant conditioning: reinforcement of appropriate responses  Consequence of a response  Law of effect: strengthening of connection between  Reinforcement makes a response occurrence more probable  Skinner and Thorndike Quantity, Quality and Contrasts of Reinforcement  Amount of reward leads to differing levels of performance, the greater the quantity = the better the performance  Amount of Reinforcement Effect (AOR)  Quality of reinforcement alters performance  Quality of Reinforcement Effect (QOR)  Latent Learning: learning in the absence of any reinforcement ( argues that the effect of reinforcement is on performance (motivation) rather than on learning) Primary and Conditioned Reinforcement  Principal characterist
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