PSYC 2230 Lecture Notes - Mary Cover Jones, Conditioned Taste Aversion, Psychosomatic Medicine

22 views6 pages
Published on 20 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2230
Motivational Psychology Chapter 5 Textbook
Learned Motives: Classical, Instrumental and Observational Learning
Our motives can be developed and directed simply through observation
Many motivated behaviours are acquired or directed by learning
Pavlovian Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning: neural stimulus gains a response from an organism because it has
been associated with some other stimulus (usually automatically) elicited that response in
the past.
Dog experiment: he presented meat powder and a neural stimulus (a bell) together to the
dog. The meat powder made the dog begin to salivate but after a few pairings of the bell
and meat powder the bell alone began to make the dog salivate.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
- Effect on behaviour is unlearned or automatic
- Meat powder
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
- Unlearned response to the UCS
- Salvation response to the meat powder
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
- Originally a neutral which develops a response
- The bell
Conditioned Response (CR)
- Learning was involved with response to CS
- Salvation
- Develops under a few pairings of the UCS and CS ( after a few times the meat
powder and bell are paired together the dog begins to salivate and learns that the bell
is associated with the meat powder)
Organism is passive in the learning process (learning will happen whether we want it to
or not)
Some maladaptive behaviours are not a result of classical conditioning
Experimental Neurosis
Experiment to determine the dogs ability to discriminate between shapes of different
objects
Generated by the organisms lack of predictability or controllability
The ability to predict and control ones environment seems to have important motivational
properties.
Classical conditioning can lead to the development of motivation and emotion
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Made a young boy scared of a white rat by pairing the rat which a striking loud noise (the
formerly neutral stimulus white rat now produced emotional and motivated behaviour
the boy tried to crawl away from the rat because he was scared of it)
A few days later the exposed the young boy to similar objects such as a rabbit and dog
with white fur for all the young boy began to cry and attempted to crawl away.
The boys emotions were generalized to anything that looked familiar to the white rat
As more time went on when the boy was exposed to similar objects his emotions were
less intense
Elimination of Motivated Behaviours Through Conditioning
Mary Cover Jones was able to eliminate fear reaction to furry objects to a three year old
boy
Pairing the fear object with a positive UCS (something pleasant)
She proved that classical conditioning could be used to reduce fears as well as produce
them
Observational learning could do the same (imitation of others that do not fear the object)
Counterconditioning: negative CS is paired with a strongly positive UCS ( the negative
response is replaced with a positive one)
Systematic Densensitization: taught to relax on command while given a list of anxiety
producing situations that involve the CS is made. learn to be relaxed while thinking
about anxiety arousing situations (the person becomes densensitized)
Interoceptive Conditioning -Razran
Classical conditioning in which either the CS, UCS or both are applied directly to the
internal organs or the mucosa
3 types:
a) Intero-Exteroceptive Conditioning: CS is applied internally, while the UCS is applied
externally.
b) Intero-Interoceptive Conditioning: when both the CS and the UCS are applied
internally
c) Extero-Interoceptive Conditioning: when an external CS is paired with an internal
UCS
Implications:
- We are usually unaware of interoceptive conditioning when it occurs
- Interoceptive conditioning cannot really be avoided
- Interoceptive conditioning is more permanent
- Has important implications for psychosomatic medicine
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Our motives can be developed and directed simply through observation. Many motivated behaviours are acquired or directed by learning. Classical conditioning: neural stimulus gains a response from an organism because it has been associated with some other stimulus (usually automatically) elicited that response in the past. Dog experiment: he presented meat powder and a neural stimulus (a bell) together to the dog. The meat powder made the dog begin to salivate but after a few pairings of the bell and meat powder the bell alone began to make the dog salivate. Effect on behaviour is unlearned or automatic. Originally a neutral which develops a response. Learning was involved with response to cs. Organism is passive in the learning process (learning will happen whether we want it to or not) Some maladaptive behaviours are not a result of classical conditioning. Experiment to determine the dogs ability to discriminate between shapes of different objects.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.