1. Hedonism as seeking pleasure and avoidance of pain
A. early Greek philosophers such as Democritus and
Epicurus during the Platonic era (429-347 BC) agreed we
behave in ordered to achieve pleasure.
B. Hobbes (1588-1679) believed all actions are motivated by
desire for pleasure and to avoid pain.
[ human nature = very self centered, we are motivated n cooperated
to achieve our goal, instrumental and pragmatic -> pessimistic view
Rousseau – goodness of human being nut corrupted by society. opti
view. Minimal amount of social intervention is best to maintain human
Freud = Hobbian -> testify irrational structure of human nature.
Human motivated by irrational + destructive sources)
C. Spencer (1820- 1903) influenced by Darwin proposed
that pleasurable behaviours have survival value, are adaptive,
have evolved, and that random responses that led to pain
were reduced in probability. Spencer’s approach was a
forerunner of Thorndike’s (1874-1949) Law of Effect in
D. Troland (1932) believed that the nervous system is
attuned to pleasurable and aversive events
o 1. Beneception occurs when peasant feelings arise by
o 2. Nociception occurs when unpleasant feeling arise
o 3. Neutroception occurs when feelings are neither +
or – (p 206-207)
E. Beebe-center (1932) said instructions can change the
perceived pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli.
Instructional set alters actions of sense organs rather than
2. P.T, young : Sign, Intensity, Duration: resear