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chapter 7.docx

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York University
PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

chapter 7: 1. Hedonism as seeking pleasure and avoidance of pain  A. early Greek philosophers such as Democritus and Epicurus during the Platonic era (429-347 BC) agreed we behave in ordered to achieve pleasure.  B. Hobbes (1588-1679) believed all actions are motivated by desire for pleasure and to avoid pain. [ human nature = very self centered, we are motivated n cooperated to achieve our goal, instrumental and pragmatic -> pessimistic view Rousseau – goodness of human being nut corrupted by society. opti view. Minimal amount of social intervention is best to maintain human goodness. Freud = Hobbian -> testify irrational structure of human nature. Human motivated by irrational + destructive sources)  C. Spencer (1820- 1903) influenced by Darwin proposed that pleasurable behaviours have survival value, are adaptive, have evolved, and that random responses that led to pain were reduced in probability. Spencer’s approach was a forerunner of Thorndike’s (1874-1949) Law of Effect in psychology  D. Troland (1932) believed that the nervous system is attuned to pleasurable and aversive events o 1. Beneception occurs when peasant feelings arise by stimuli o 2. Nociception occurs when unpleasant feeling arise o 3. Neutroception occurs when feelings are neither + or – (p 206-207)  E. Beebe-center (1932) said instructions can change the perceived pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli. Instructional set alters actions of sense organs rather than altering perception. 2. P.T, young : Sign, Intensity, Duration: resear
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