Class Notes (811,169)
Canada (494,539)
York University (33,712)
Psychology (4,078)
PSYC 2230 (205)

Lecture Notes for Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 - The Concept of Motivation; Life Processes; Mitosis and Meiosis; Sex in Meiosis Involves Finding a Suitable Partner; The Pleasures of Sex; Summary - Motivation; Measurement of Motivation; Philosophical Root

42 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

MAY 3 Chapter 1 *for studying, take note of the key terms, theories, concepts, and methods Ask a question from the title - "What is evolution? Motivation?" - During your readings, find the meanings/answer S(survey/overlook the chapter) Q (convert topics into questions) 3R (read and find info related to question; recite what you read; review) I. The Concept of Motivation A. A consistent flow of behaviour directed toward different goals Behaviour is purposeful. Goal-directed Objective of achieving a goal => satisfying physical/psychological requirements B. Motivation is directed towards one behaviour to another Need for food => hunger Need for fatigue => restfulness These are examples that different needs give use to different behaviours; different behaviours lead to different goals C. Motivation for specific behaviours e.g. mating rituals can be traced to fundamental processes of life Mating rituals purpose = reproduction and perpetuation of species Micro-based behaviour = spontaneous Chain of behaviour = motivated More advanced species more room for learning and experience Specific pattern, predictable, stereotyped = simple animal Variability, spontaneous, more learning and more experience = complex animal II. Life Processes A. Activities characteristic of organisms encompasses 2 broad categories: reproduction and metabolism B. Reproduction: living organisms replicate selves. Reproduction is mechanism for maintaining genetic info. Living organisms reproduce for the benefit of DNA and are temporary receptacles for info. Storage in genes C. Metabolism: conversation of energy req. for survival D. Thus, with metabolism organisms live long enough to reproduce- - pass on genetic information across time Pg. 349 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Psychological needs harder to satisfy than physiological needs As a result of deprivation, your need increases Growth motivation = aspiring, achievement motivation III. Mitosis and Meiosis A. Mitosis: asexual reproduction - - single cell divides into 2 identical/daughter cells B. Meiosis: sexual reproduction: 2 specialized cells joined to form a new cell that includes genetic info from both cells (gametes = sex cells - ova and sperm each of which have 23 chromosomes) at conception, ovum and sperm unite for zygote that contains 46 chromosomes C. Reproduction: fundamental process that lets individuals genetic information to be passed on D. Resources limited => competition (for territory, mates, etc.) b/w individuals constant. Survival depends on successful competition (genetic survival) which permits individual to live long (personal survival) enough to reproduce Power, control, and competency = motives that come into play in competition Any mechanism that provides an advantage in this competition would be retained. So, sexual reproduction is an advantage b/c offspring = product of 2 parents w/ recombined genetic info that may be an advantage for survival What do we pass on to the next generation? - Money, resources, knowledge, skills, values, cultures, ideals, genes -> generational transmission Conception to prenatal = rapid physiological and psychological growth Pea plant experiment = gregor medol? Those with recessive genes may be covered by a dominant gene and survive If recessive feature is lethal, individual would die early, decreases chances of passing this feature on and its occurrence in population genre pool would be limited E. Thus, primary motives and human motives serve to maintain life to increase chances of survival (p) and reproduction (g) -- passing on of stored genetic info IV. Sex in meiosis involves finding a suitable partner A. Sexual motivation evolved as a mechanism to find a partner B. Those with strong sexual motivation would find a partner more readily than those with weak motivation With each kind of motivation it varies individually Compatibility must be worked out between 2 individuals - In terms of their different levels of motivation Motives don't = fixed in expression and intensity C. The more ones genetic info is passed on the more likely that info will exist in the future (legacy/culture is passed on) Therefore, a biological imperative evolves - - all organisms motivated to replicate themselves Those that don't make an intellectual not a biological decision V. Pleasure of Sex: evolution of sexual behaviour and its persistence due to pleasurable sensations that arise from sexual contact w/ parsimony leads to reduction Humans and some primates (e.g. Bonobo) engage in sexual behaviour for reasons other than reproduction such as to lower aggression, bonding, gaining access to food Yet these same behaviours increase chances of survival and future opportunities for sexual interaction and the passing on of genes VI. Summary A. most fundamental motive = reproduction B. other motives keep individual live long enough to reproduce
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2230

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.