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PSYC 2230 Lecture Notes - Meiosis, Mitosis, Egg Cell

Course Code
PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

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Chapter 1
*for studying, take note of the key terms, theories, concepts, and methods
Ask a question from the title
- "What is evolution? Motivation?"
- During your readings, find the meanings/answer
S(survey/overlook the chapter) Q (convert topics into questions) 3R (read and
find info related to question; recite what you read; review)
I. The Concept of Motivation
A. A consistent flow of behaviour directed toward different goals
Behaviour is purposeful. Goal-directed
Objective of achieving a goal => satisfying physical/psychological
B. Motivation is directed towards one behaviour to another
Need for food => hunger
Need for fatigue => restfulness
These are examples that different needs give use to different behaviours;
different behaviours lead to different goals
C. Motivation for specific behaviours
e.g. mating rituals can be traced to fundamental processes of life
Mating rituals purpose = reproduction and perpetuation of species
Micro-based behaviour = spontaneous
Chain of behaviour = motivated
More advanced species more room for learning and experience

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Specific pattern, predictable, stereotyped = simple animal
Variability, spontaneous, more learning and more experience = complex
II. Life Processes
A. Activities characteristic of organisms encompasses 2 broad categories:
reproduction and metabolism
B. Reproduction: living organisms replicate selves. Reproduction is mechanism for
maintaining genetic info. Living organisms reproduce for the benefit of DNA and are
temporary receptacles for info. Storage in genes
C. Metabolism: conversation of energy req. for survival
D. Thus, with metabolism organisms live long enough to reproduce- - pass on
genetic information across time
Pg. 349 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Psychological needs harder to satisfy than physiological needs
As a result of deprivation, your need increases
Growth motivation = aspiring, achievement motivation
III. Mitosis and Meiosis
A. Mitosis: asexual reproduction - - single cell divides into 2 identical/daughter cells
B. Meiosis: sexual reproduction: 2 specialized cells joined to form a new cell that
includes genetic info from both cells (gametes = sex cells - ova and sperm each of
which have 23 chromosomes) at conception, ovum and sperm unite for zygote that
contains 46 chromosomes

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C. Reproduction: fundamental process that lets individual’s genetic information to
be passed on
D. Resources limited => competition (for territory, mates, etc.) b/w individuals
constant. Survival depends on successful competition (genetic survival) which permits
individual to live long (personal survival) enough to reproduce
Power, control, and competency = motives that come into play in competition
Any mechanism that provides an advantage in this competition would be
So, sexual reproduction is an advantage b/c offspring = product of 2 parents
w/ recombined genetic info that may be an advantage for survival
What do we pass on to the next generation?
- Money, resources, knowledge, skills, values, cultures, ideals,
genes -> generational transmission
Conception to prenatal = rapid physiological and psychological growth
Pea plant experiment = gregor medol?
Those with recessive genes may be covered by a dominant gene and survive
If recessive feature is lethal, individual would die early, decreases chances of
passing this feature on and its occurrence in population genre pool would be
E. Thus, primary motives and human motives serve to maintain life to increase
chances of survival (p) and reproduction (g) -- passing on of stored genetic info
IV. Sex in meiosis involves finding a suitable partner
A. Sexual motivation evolved as a mechanism to find a partner
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