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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

LECTURE 1 SQ3R Method: • S: Survey • Q: Questions • 3R: Read, Relate, Review CHAPTER 1 Motivation: Concepts and Measurement • Motivation is not something we can directly observe, we infer it • We make that inference on the basis of what we observe • We observe their behavior (what is observable and visible) called overt behavior • we can create the motivation and observe the behavior in order to measure the creation • There is conscious motivation and there is unconscious motivation • Motives that are outside of our immediate awareness is unconscious • We arrive at unconscious motivation through psychotherapy UNCONCIOUS MOTIVATIONS 1. Dreams • We can ask the person to record dreams (to find their unconscious motivation) • Even if the dream is bizarre, it may hold a key to unconscious motivation 2. Symptoms • e.g. the individual shows specific symptoms, and it may be symbolic of some underlying motive • We can't make judgments based on just one category 3. Slips of speech • Error in pronunciation • We say "well, I didn't really mean that" MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 1 • Slips of pen and tongue (parapraxes) • Once in a while things slip out, something repetitive about this 4. Jokes • Why do you just tell a joke that you just told? • Witty, break the ice • Someone that knows you well, you always seem to tell the same joke or one that's in a certain category • Perhaps they get anxious when people don't get along, so they say a joke to break the ice 5. Body language CONSCIOUS MOTIVATION • Need for power: run for president • Need for competence: learn a skill • Dependency need: bonds and connection with others • We can become aware of various motives and we are conscious of that • Need for achievement is very important • NEEDS COMPETE (e.g. studying for a test is more important than going out that night) • Power might compete with dependency (I don't want to always be the person others are dependent on) • The one that is most important is translated to actual behavior • Once it is gratified, it gets dropped into the background, and a new need comes into play Figure ground perception • We have all of these needs • We have dominant needs MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 2 • Once that is expressed and the motive need is gratified, it goes into the background and another need becomes more dominant and important • We seek out alternative stimulation • We also seek out the variety of stimuli • Some are really restless with repetition • Extroverts: stimulus seekers, usually in the form of other people o Motivated by a strong stimulation seeking motive as it relates to seeking out others o The motive is to seek stimulation with social interaction o They seek adventure and they get bored really easily and they are risk takers o Extroverts have chronic under arousal in their nervous system and they compensate by seeking stimulation in the external world • Introverts: not so externally oriented in their search for stimulation, dreams, imagination o Search stimulation in ideas and visions o Does it have to do with their nervous system? o Introverts have significant internal arousal, they don't need to seek out more stimulation (they are content) • In the brain stem there is a structure called the RAS: reticular activating system o It is a network of neurons: provides input/stimulation to the upper brain (cortex) o But there are individual differences in RAS stimulation o The extrovert is trying to compensate for the lack of stipulation in the cortex o The introvert has adequate RAS stimulation into the cortex, the last thing they want is MORE external input, that could be overwhelming o If the introvert has too much stimulation it will create stress & anxiety o RAS is a key structure in the brain stem, it influences the cortex (stimulates it) MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 3 o Introvert uses internal sources of stimulation rather than external 1. Concept of motivation (M): forces acting on or within an organism to initiate action (p. 4) • Motivated behavior (B) displays intensity and persistence • Internal sources = minimal, external source = maximal • Motivation refers to forces (external and internal that initiate action) • Intensity: how high or low is the motivation - can be very mild or very extreme 2. Measurement of motivation (M) : motivation is not measured directly; manipulate stimulus (S) condition and observe behavioral response (R) • example from p. 5 a) S is deprivation and speed of running in a maze is R • Deprivation can be mild or severe • We can deprive an organism from food (S), what is the response (R)? • Deprivation is withholding an item for some response • As deprivation varies, need varies, & as need varies, behavior varies b) Infer motivation from change in behavior • If organism takes a casual walk in the maze, then the organism has not been deprived much, doesn't have much of a need to finish the maze • **intensity, action, achievement, relaxation - when the organism has not been deprived • If organism runs through the maze, then the organism has been deprived severely and has a need to finish the maze quick MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 4 • Deprivation creates need (need can be mild or strong) that influences behavior, once we correct the need, we reduce the derive to continue • Stimulus-response analysis for motivation (p. 5)- applies to all biological organisms c) Motivation is an intervening variable (IV): serves to link the S and R and as an IV it provides an explanation for the relationship between S and R (see figure 1.1 and 1.2 on p. 5) • Deprivation is external • We can observe and measure response and stimulus, but we can only infer the intervening variable • Anthropomorphic fallacy: making it up - describing human attributes on non- human organisms ->ex. I think my goldfish is sad • With a desire of hunger also comes another desire (hunger -> fatigue) • We can observe the stimulus change and measure, we can observe and measure the response, but we can only infer the intervening variable (we cannot measure or observe) d) Motivation is a performance variable (PV): when enough is present B is performed • The residue of what's missing may never be fulfilled and addressed - called unrelenting desire • There's always going to be an unrelenting desire - that's what keeps us motivated • Because there may be a psychological desire to constantly pursuing a desire • Certain stimuli in the environment act as an incentive (reward or threat) for the behavior to be performed LECTURE 2: Chapter 1: Desire is the essence of man by Spinoza (1632-1677) The photo used as an example for desire is from a movie called A Dangerous Method  Transference love - her love for him (from their doctor-patient relationship) MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 5 o A positive for her, because it will help the patient positively in the recovery process  Countertransference love - his love for her (from their doctor-patient relationship) o A negative for him, because he is much older than her, and is also her doctor  Their relationship quickly unwanted and ended up separating The photo used as an another example for desire is from a movie called La Dolce Vita (The Good Life)  The power of desire is the power of motivation Man will risk his biological life to satisfy his nonbiological desire by Hegel (1770-1831) Example: What would you do for her? I'd die for her.  A biological risk (death) for nonbiological desire (love) Nothing great in the world has ever been accomplished without passion by Hegel  Those who are passionate will proceed with a accomplishment You can't always get what you want/ but if you try sometimes you might find you get what you need. (Rolling Stones) Passion is what gives our lives meaning. Once you have experienced it, all else is irrelevant. In the Phaedrus, Plato likens reason to a charioteer who tries to control passion. Reason and passion are in continual conflict. For Freud, the Id component of personality, among other things, representing passion, is usually in conflict with the ego, representing reason, and the superego, representing conscience.  We are motivated to resolve conflict  When we try to minimize the conflict, and gives us the rise of emotion of anxiety  Conflict gives us stress, stress gives us anxiety, we try to minimize anxiety, it is manageable, but if it becomes too intense it will not be manageable anymore (phobic anxiety is manageable) For Maslow, we have a 'hierchy of needs', and thus are not motivated exclusively by physical requirements but as well, we are motivated by higher level motives, such as self-actualization; the need to fulfill or realize our full potential. 'Man does not live by bread alone.' (An ancient biblical source) MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 6  Sometimes we have to defer a fulfillment of a need as we tend to another need that we can fulfill  When we are motivated we are in an excitatory state  Characteristics of Motivation: o Activation as in the production of overt and covert behaviour (p. 6) o We can resort to brain waves to see if someone is dreaming (measuring a covert behaviour) o When we're awake we demonstrate alpha waves o When we are awake and are alert and engaged we demonstrate to beta waves o When we are sleeping we are demonstrating to delta and theta waves o But when we are dreaming we are demonstrating to beta waves  Same as when we are fully awake and engaged in an activity o Paradoxical sleep - sleeping but brain is active as if it is awake o Persistence as in ongoing performance of B o Vigor as in forceful behavior o Not a casual activity but a forceful one o Direction as in which choice of goal is made o Measure direction in terms of persistence test of possible choices (p.7) o Also referred to a cafeteria of choices - we are no longer just satisfied with one type of food, and are presented with many options to choose from and still not satisfied  Categories of Analysis: study motivation from different viewpoints o Nomothetic: a search for general laws by studying large study groups and what holds for one group may hold for other groups (species; p.7+8) o Not only do we go from sample to population but we compare a particular species with another species o BF Skinner wrote a book "behavior of organisms" but the book was devoted to only rats and pigeons  He said the principle of reinforcement applies to rats, monkeys, pigeons, AND humans! o Condition reflex: Just as a dog will salivate to the bell, but we too display not only that reflex but others as well Idiographic: a search of individual differences or how organism differ from each other  Concentrates on single individuals noting their uniqueness MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 7  Also similar to a case study method (because both focus on details of one single individual)  Innate vs. acquired: McDougall and James saw motivated behavior as controlled by innate motives called instincts. o Freud was a great advocate of instincts o Animals are creature of REFLEX o We on the other hand have rational minds o Soul and mind philosophically have been used interchangeably o "I think therefore I am" he endowed the human with cognition o Charles Dawrin 1859- origin of Species o Instinct in animals and humans ACQUIRED MOTIVES in contrast are learned and INCENTIVE MOTIVATION; the value placed on a goal may be learned and that goal becomes through experience and learning to be valued o We value for money so we try to accumulate it as much as we can o Instincts are inborne and anything that is acquired is the result of experience, learning, conditioning o Everyone has their own incentives o We do share certain incentives in common though, such as money and status, and the value we place on certain roles Internal VS External analysis: needs are sources of motivation and are INTERNAL. Deprivation brings about needs as internal sources of motivated behaviour. Whereas incentives and goals are external sources of motivation. o Value may be high or low or variable o We're more attentive to certain cues-moves us closer to our goal o We may be insensitive to other cues o Needs as internal sources and goals as external sources of motivation • Mechanistic vs. Cognitive: are motivational processes blind, mechanical, triggered automatically by internal and external sources without conscious awareness or choice? o We are not always consciously thinking about the choices we make o e.g. why are you so excited about that goal? And we say "I haven't really given it much thought, it is automatic." o The behaviour is rising from sources not in our immediate consciousness o When we start to reflect on the goal, we may change our goal o Habits free us from having to have conscious attention- e.g. driving automatically, may get into an accident o A well-practiced act becoming a habit- starts to occur more automatically o When something is new, we pay more attention MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 8 o SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION: flash something really fast but it is in our unconscious but not in our conscious (through heart rate, sweat, blood pressure, breathing etc.) o GSR: Galvanic Skin Response measure of emotionality, sweat o Polygraph: lie detector, but the heart rate, GSR, breathing gives the person away. We can maintain a poker face but the body betrays us o The body reveals what the mind denies o You can learn to control these autonomic responses OR are motivational processes cognitive in so far as conscious choice, and intent, This approach assumes that the manner in which information is interpreted influences motive states. o When we are motivated, we are emotional- we are activated o e.g. attributing failure to ability or to luck; does this influence emotion and subsequent motivation? o The attribution that we arrive at will give us a sense of pride (or not) o e.g. the source of my success is luck and when I fail it's because I lack ability-you can become depressed o When the individual gives up: LEARNED HELPLESSNESS o When we are successful we have a sense of pride which helps us continue to keep working LEVELS OF ANALYSIS A. Physiological Analysis is concerned with the brain's control of motivated states • Hypothalamus triggers hunger, sex drive, motivational states • There are various ways of studying the brain: electrically-stimulating sites, chemically, surgical manipulation • Electrical stimulation • Olds and Milner's study of reward centers • Implanting electrodes in selected brain sites • Rats were motivated for hours to receive electrical stimulation in the septal region of the brain by pressing the lever • Each time they pressed the lever, they would get an electrical impulse, and they kept pressing it • They began to realize that humans are the same way • This is why we feel good after a meal, after a good night's sleep, sexually • They used a MECHANISTIC APPROACH- they didn't need to guess if the rats liked it or not • The explanation of pleasure and pain falls into a mechanistic approach • Whenever we use mechanistic approach, our explanations are lean MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 9 • Many of Freud's constructs could not be verified through experimental science in contrast to today are rescuing Freud, that his speculations were correct • Anchored to empirical experimental research Chemical Manipulation A. By inserting a tube (canula) into brain sites and releasing chemicals. We see the result on the organism's behaviour B. This approach is like a medication approach, we take a pill and it has influence on a brain site C. That pill interacts with chemicals being released in the brain (neurotransmitters) Surgical Lesioning D. KARL LASHLEY- systematically removed brain tissue from the rat's brain and observed how much forgetting the rat would display E. He thought he would find the brain site for memory, but this wasn’t the case F. Memory seems to be not necessarily localized in a specific brain site, but generalized to different parts of the brain G. Hippocampus is necessary for memory, especially short term memory H. Case of HM- a patient with severe epilepsy, and he had psychosurgery (removed the hippocampus), he couldn't form new memories post-surgery A. EEG recording of brain wave patterns associated with motivation. PET records of metabolic activity and MRI to visualize areas of the brain • Non-invasive approach unlike the other ones • We have alpha, beta, delta wave patterns that are correlated with states of arousal • Arousal is synonymous with motivation • Individual Analysis research aimed at understanding motivational changes due to internal and external conditions. In studies of achievement for example, motivation was induced by telling subjects that they had failed an important task, or in aggression studies through different modeled presentations of aggression. (P 10-11) • Attribution always influences if you are demotivated or motivated • If you think you failed because you lack ability, you will be demotivated and experience learned helplessness • Rather than approach the challenge, we start to ignore it (demotivated) • Kids watch aggressive actions (bogo dolls), we then observe the extent to which the children will act aggressively • The children will overtly model what they've seen if the consequences are rewarding • If the model is punished, they won't reproduce it • Aggression to leads to award they will do, to punishment they won't do it MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 10 • We learn by observing, but we don't always perform what we observe • By learning from the model, we use empathy DIRECT LEARNING • You in the situation learning BICARIOUS LEARNING • You observing someone else but you still learn and you see if they get punished or an award for their action • Psychopaths have low levels of empathy, so they do not mind making someone else's life uncomfortable • There may be an area in the brain not functioning properly, so they don’t experience empathy • Having a pet for a young child helps them promote their empathy • CATHARSIS: discharge or release of emotion • Someone is hurting, if we feel like we feel their pain, we are releasing emotion therefore catharsis • Catharsis is very important on psychotherapy • They put an emphasis on remembering a memory and having an emotional reaction that AT THE TIME, they held their emotion in check (repression) • If an individual doesn't remember a traumatic experience it will come back in a symptom • It will not be released later in a healthy way • Once the individual remembers, AND they show the emotional expression, they will feel a lot better • Social Analysis examines motivational changes, in the presence and absence of others or situational factors such as at work, school, party • Solomon & Asch- conformity • Line A is the longer line-even though it wasn't • Everyone just agreed with the others • The subject began to deny their own perception! • The subject was motivated to conform to the collective perception of others • In the debriefing, the subject said I knew line C was the longer but I didn’t want to disagree with the group • Ash came to the conclusion that we are motivated to belong-in Maslow's hierarchy-is a very central motive • We fear punishment/social rejection • His experiment is a good example of when social analysis examines motivational changes • To not conform is to experience potential rejection MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 11 • Research shows that when you work with one or more other individuals, you work harder • When you're working alone, your degree of attention seems to go away: SOCIAL FACILIATION EFFECT • Philosophical Analysis may view motivation as an aversive state to escape or avoid • Motivation that arises out of trying to correct something unpleasant • HEDONISM: human beings pursue pleasure and avoid pain • In psychoanalysis, Freud talked about pleasure and pain • We pursue pleasure, and repress bad memories • The EGO has various defenses to minimize our displeasure and to emphasize our pleasure • Hedonism is readily applied to psychoanalysis • Pursuing a drug is not going after the pleasure but to avoid the withdraw feeling • Initially the drug is pursued for the pleasure until you become addicted • OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY: with each pleasure (repetitively), we experience the opposite as well, so the body and mind can return to the baseline • With repeated stimulations of pleasure, the pleasure decreases and the opposite grows more and more • This can be applied to the matter of drug addiction • Freud's philosophy presents motivation as tension that must be released and thus reduced so as to restore equilibrium • Major Constructs: A. Energy drives, behaviour, and specific mechanisms and directs behaviour to different goals depending on the motive (e.g. need) activated A. Energy, aka arousal, aka activation (these terms are used interchangeably) B. Energy depletion- rest and renewal C. We talk about energy, drive, fuel D. These are a number of metaphors that we use to talk about motivation E. Implies that there is some source that gives rise to our actions F. When there is insufficient energy, there is insufficient motivation G. One of the things that is noted in clinical depression is a loss of energy, a reduction in motor behaviour, and a withdrawal from interested that the individual had taken pleasure in (ANHEDONIA) H. Taking control of one's life tends to decrease I. Exploratory behaviour decreases J. When there is energy, we get every opposite to ^ K. GENERAL ENERGY: motivational drive is a single source for all behaviour L. SPECIFIC FORCES: behind particular behaviours o Is there a specific energy behind sexual energy? Yes, libido MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 12 LECTURE 3 B. Physiological mechanisms assume motivational dispositions are genetically programmed or “wired-in” to the organism This approach takes one of two forms: 1. Instinct approach assumes energy accumulates and leads to a motivational state responsive to specific stimuli releasing specific behaviors (e.g. imprinting). And evolutionary psychology emphasizes motivated behaviour as adaptations to environmental conditions that benefit the organism’s and species’ survival o Energy is dynamic, not static o As energy accumulate for needs, the individual must discharge or release the energy through actual motor movement, or through verbal action, also in dreaming o Too much accumulation of energy creates tension o As energy accumulate and tension follows, we then put ourselves in a state of disequilibrium o As we discharge the energy and get rid of the tension, we get back into equilibrium/homeostasis o An instinct is an inborn predisposition o Imprinting: organism as an energy system becomes attentive to a stimuli, represents an adaptation o MORE LIKELY TO SURVIVE, receive the resources and pay attention 1. Brain Circuitry approach whereby specific brain circuits monitor internal state of the body and activate motivated behaviour (e.g. hunger need is related to glucose levels). o Glucose levels in the case of hunger o This internal circuitry in the brain then activates action (seek food, drink, rest) C. Learning focuses on how motivational patterns are acquired or conditioned MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 13 • We acquire a motive state or drive of fear, we attach that to a certain stimuli in the environment • The arousal of fear initiates behaviour, usually behaviour of escape and avoidance • A good example of an acquired learned motivational pattern is in the case of fear • Initially the organism is not frightened, then experiences a painful stimulus, then tries to escape the stimulus • Any stimuli that are associated with the painful stimulus, become conditioned cues • E.g. shock=painful stimulus, if there is a light with that shock, it becomes a cue that the painful stimulus will follow • PAVLOVIAN PARADIGM- response to the conditioned stimulus is attached • By being attentive to the conditioned stimulus, we can avoid the unconditioned stimulus • Hull emphasized the role of needs, their reduction reinforcing behaviour that reduced the drive, and Bandura introduced the role of modeling for motivated behaviour • We look at what others are doing D. Social interaction examines situational-group factors s in conformity studies (Asch) and power of authority (Milgram). How does social pressure influence and motivate action? • We want to act like the others • Other times we are motivated to do otherwise • That addresses the matter of personality • Some people like to conform, others are more critical and they look at what they are being pressured to conform • INNER-DIRECTED (resist the pressure to conform) OTHER-DIRECTED (tend to conform to what the group says and does) THIS IS A SOCIAL SCIENCE CONSTRUCT • FIELD DEPENDENT-what are the directions and instruction? And FIELD INDEPENDENT-more inclined to make their own assessment of the field, they will decide if it sounds reasonable or not on their OWN? (where you are) THIS IS A PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSTRUCT • Teens may be other directed with peers but inner directed with parents • We are a ratio of FD, FI • If someone else is resisting authority, you may think twice • It’s hard to resist a situation where everyone is conforming E. Cognitive Processes propose that interpretation of information influences motivation as in cognitive dissonance and attribution of causes of one’s own and other’s behaviour. What is the role of active information processing? • Your interpretation of the stimulus, does it mean anything to you or not? MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 14 • E.g. if you have been in a bad storm before, you will be more attentive next time they say there’s going to be a storm on the weather network • Cognitive dissonance: Cognitive dissonance can occur in many areas of life, but it is particularly evident in situations where an individual's behavior conflicts with beliefs that are integral to his or her self-identity. • E.g. if you believe smoking is bad for you, but you still smoke, that’s a dissonant relationship • Dissonance translates to disequilibrium and disharmony • DISSONANCE IS THE OPPOSITE OF COGNITIVE HOMEOSTASIS • Dissonance is a motivator, when it is strong we engage is DISSONANCE REDUCING ACTION • I better rethink this and try to resolve it • Dissonance is a stressor but the stressor motivates us There are three key strategies to reduce or minimize cognitive dissonance: • Focus on more supportive beliefs that outweigh the dissonant belief or behavior. • Reduce the importance of the conflicting belief. • Change the conflicting belief so that it is consistent with other beliefs or behaviors. F. Activation of Motivation focuses on triggers, peripheral and central in activating motivational behaviours. • Peripheral cues such as dry mouth, hunger pangs, and • Yawning or heavy eyelids-sleep • Breathing changes-sleep/fatigue • Central cues such as hormone levels, e.g. leptin in fat cells, are related to different motivational states such as hunger • Usually in the endocrine system • Hypothalamus is a brains structure which sends cues through the body to alert us that we’re hungry and thirsty G. Homeostasis involves the maintenance of an optimal level of internal bodily functioning • Above or below the optimal level, motivational behaviours are triggered to correct and restore homeostasis or equilibrium • we either minimize the importance of the stressor or try to fix it • if we reinterpret the stressor we see possibly that it’s not as stressful as well though previous • or you can think its insignificant and then realize it is significant H. Hedonism postulates that organisms are motivated by the search for pleasure and avoidance of pain MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 15 • food elicits salivation automatically • the light becomes a cue to trigger salivation (this is the dog example) • You see the advantages of ANTICIPITORY ACTIONS- are preparing us for the significant event and are triggered by cues! • According to hedonism, we are disposed to search for pleasure and avoid pain I . Growth Motivation (GM) assumes that there are higher level motives that emphasize striving for personal fulfillment leading to fuller functioning and not merely the correction of deficits or the reduction of drive states • Related to GM is effectance motivation or personal causation focusing on motivated action aimed at improving or testing one’s capabilities • I want to grow as I pursue that particular motive • Man and woman do not live by bread alone, after the fulfillment of biological needs we’re still in a state of arousal and disposed to pursue • GROWTH MOTIVATION IS EQUAL TO DESIRE WHICH ACTIVATES US PARSINOMY- simple, concise, elegant • The most parsimonious formula is E=mc2, it’s elegant • The formula speaks volumes in its simplicity • Clark Hull is a scientist, and he was fond of making very simple formulas of complex phenomena • He created the formula SER= f SH R X D • SER= REACTION POTENTIAL, the likelihood you will react is a function of SHR (habit strength) times D (drive, you can manipulate drive, an organism can be deprived for 5 hours or 25 hours) • You can also control habit strength, you can encourage a high habit strength (give you food after every 2 response) or low, give you food after every 10 th response NUMBER OF REINFORCEMENTS YOU HAVE DELIVERED FOLLOWING THE EXECUTION OF THAT HABIT • E.G. High drive (organism been deprived of food for 25 hours) and the organism has received food before when going from the start to goal box then their reaction potential is VERY HIGH • Based on our manipulations, we can predict the organisms potential to react • Don’t we always try to predict other people’s reaction? • Others have habits that we are accustomed to so we can guess better • We also predict what we will do in certain situations, based on past situations that are similar • Once we know the variables that influence action, if we can control those variables, we can control the action • NOT ONLY DO WE OBSERVE & MEASURE BEHAVIOUR, BUT WE ALSO PREDICT & CONTROL BEHAVIOUR VII. Philosophical and Physiological Theory: MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 16 • Philosophical theory is derived from notions about what constitutes human nature that was very much a part of Greek philosophy. E.g. Aristotle proposed: the soul (mind) is free, thus free will; and the mind is a black slate at birth. Hence, experience and learning determines in part the mind’s contents. • Experience and learning determines what is in your mind • Different experiences lead to different content and reflection • Contrary to Aristotle’s position is determinism: all action is caused by antecedent variables • Free will has very little to do • Determinism is more mechanistic • Free will is more cognitive • In the nature-nurture controversy, Aristotle is on the side of nurture • Aristotle is somewhat on the side of nurture • We are born with potential but that potential cannot be shown without experienced • Aristotle is linked with John Lock? “all knowledge and understanding is derived from his experience” 2500 years ago, with the 17 century • Lock is linked to behavioural psychology: all habit formation is the result of learning, conditioning, and experience PAGE 16, 17, 18 • DESCARTES: A dualistic theory of human nature, whereby human behaviour is partly the result of a free, rational soul (cognitive functions) and partly the result to automatic (non-rational) processes of the body, as evidenced by instincts • Descartes’ approach suggests a mechanical view of human nature as in automatic reactions to stimuli and a cognitive view of the mind’s capacity to think and reason • Nature-nurture controversy is an outgrowth of Aristotle and Descartes’ competing views • Freud: we are capable of rationale thought AND unconscious element • Zeit: time geist: SPIRIT OF THE TIMES, THE NOTIONS THAT ARE CIRCULATING AT A PARTICULAR FORM OF TIME • Up until the time of Freud, everyone thought human beings are rationale, we have come to control the physical and personal world • Freud turned that upside down and introduced the subconscious irrational component to human nature MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 17 • 19 and 20 century, he was challenging the Zeitgeist • We haven’t solved nature and nature, we say there is an interaction of the two • Human nature is composed of these relative components or contributions, so we are moving away from extremes • Locke introduced two important ideas for psychology: i. Role of sensory experience in determining contents of mind since mind at birth is a black slate, a “tabula rasa” (e.g. Aristotle’s position) ii. Association of ideas in which sensation is converted into ideas, the basic units of the mind i. From sensation to perception of what is, and through reflection the mind gains knowledge of its own operation ii. Complex ideas may be reduced to simple ideas and it is the mind’s capacity to associate one idea with another that accounts for the formation of concepts and knowledge. iii. Ideas are associated with other ideas iv. The two ideas leads to a change in identity of each idea, where we then arrive at a NEW idea GEORGE HAGEL: Hegelian dialectic v. is a process that is composed of three components 1) Thesis: unconscious + unity 2) Antithesis: conscious + separation 3) Synthesis: conscious + unity NEW ENTITY, NEW EGO CHECK ONLINE TO MAKE SURE IT IS CORRECT vi. As you link with another, there is a lure in the “we” but there is a risk in losing the I vii. We want to maintain our individuality but yet we want to combine with another, and in that process we lose some of our individuality viii. But we arrive at a synthesis, how do we create a balance? Retaining and combining, individuality on one hand, and the sacrifice of it on the other hand ix. The capacity to think about our own thinking: METACOGNITION (self- awareness and reflection) MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 18 x. Descartes quoted “I think therefore I am” xi. This is what differentiates humans from all other life on Earth Association of ideas and memories xii. Freud: free association: spontaneous generation of whatever comes to your mind xiii. Association of ideas in cognitive psychology and the association of stimulus and response in behavioural psychology Functional Autonomy of Motives: motives become independent-autonomous-of their original biological sources xiv. After we have enough food and beverage on the table, what are we really working for? xv. Maslow’s, once we finish fulfilling the biological components, we start fulfilling the other components xvi. We don’t think twice about food and security after a while, so we think of other motives xvii. “the appreciation of beauty” or “esthetic appreciation” we are free of being dominated by biological considerations and we are able to permit the other motives xviii. “appreciation of ideas” FOR EXAMPLE: working to survive may become independent of the original biological necessity to provide food and shelter to satisfy needs. Work for its ‘own sake’ as to ‘achieve’ may become separated from its original biological source. It becomes an independent motive and forms the basis of achievement motivation or effectance motivation. i. Physiological Antecedents: 1. Galen (AD 129-199) proposed sensory-motor nerves and this provided a basis of how interest in the nervous system influence modern motivational psychology 1. Bell and Magendie in the 19 century showed how sensory-motor connection in the nervous system form the basis of action 2. Furthermore-the study of sensation (sensory) on the one hand, and responses (motor action) on the other led to Stimulus-response (S-R) psychology as an outgrowth of sensory-motor physiology 1. Doctrine of specific nerve energies specifies that different nerves are responsible for different sensations (hot-cold, colours) and are based upon sensory experience. The nervous system organizes sensory experience and interprets it, which gives rise to different sensory experience MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 19 • Without sensory experience, we do not furnish mind with ideas • Electrical Nature of Nerve Impulse was suggested by Galvani (18 th century). Activity of the nerve is electrical in nature and can be measured. • Nervous system being composed of electrical forces (nerve impulses) • This interest in the nerve impulse was supported by Dubois-Reymond and th Helmholtz (19 century) measuring the strength and speed of nerve impulses • Localization of Brain Function led to mapping the regions of the brain responsible for different functions • Gall and phrenology was precursor to this approach (p. 18-19). Gall attempted to map personality traits onto different areas of the skull, noting bums and depressions. o He was trying to correlate different areas of the skull with different personality traits – called the phrenology chart o This attempt of trying to relate the physical world with the psychological word, o Colret tye, fregmanted type, the malentalic type, and the semantatic type (introduced by hipoclapis) LOL WHAT? • Localization of the brain function – are there areas in the brain that are correlated with certain psychological features? • Phrenology is debunked but led way for the study of the brain • Broca’s Area- Left hemisphere was the language hemisphere because patients that could not produce speech discovered lesions in the left hemisphere (prefrontal motor cortex) TEST (brocas area is more in the frontal lobe) • led to a condition called Aphasia, inability to produce speech • there are two area’s in the left hemisphere that are involved in language • area responsible for interpretation of language is known as Wernicker’s Area? • Broca’s area: speech production • That’s why some people can UNDERSTAND what others are saying but they cannot speak • Longitudinal fisher, sylvan Fisher (division types of the bain??) LECTURE 4: Chapter 2 Genetics and motivation MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 20 1. Instincts: genetically motivated behaviours that occur when certain conditions are present and requires no learning (p. 36) o The behaviour that flows from instinct is natural and inborn o Early instinct theories were popular in the late 9th and early 20th century. Concept of instinct acted as a 'theoretical bridge' between animal and human behaviour and thus evolution applied to both humans and animals and to physical structure, behaviour, and the mind. • William McDougal (p. 37) and William James (p. 36) • Up until Darwin's time, humans were "special" instants in life • Darwin placed the "humans" back into the natural form • Humans are a separate group, they are a special example of creation (in Christianity) • Humans were referred to as superior beings (Latin phrase homosapian) • In contrast to animals, who are considered lower biological creatures, who have no soul or no mind • Humans are irrational (physical bodies) and rational (mind and soul) • Animals are only irrational because their needs are derived by motives • So.. Humans are not special instants of creation • What distinguishes us from animals, is that we a soul and mind, we are closer to the natural world • Alfred Wallis (p. 25) arrived at the same theory of evolution as Darwin's • This evolutionary theory arose from biology and was applied to psychology o Therefore, a continuity between human and animal behaviour is promoted • Humans are made up of a number of physical parts and as a result of that interaction, in part, the human behaviour is demonstrated • Only humans are capable of self-responsive and reflexive behaviour • Animals are governed exclusively by instincts • "dualistic conception of human nature" that there is mind and that there is matter  Humans have mind and matter  Animals only have matter • Nominal Fallacy: naming behaviour as instinctive does not explain it. Labeling is not an explanation; rather, must specify conditions that led to behaviour (B). Cause-effect analysis attempt to do this. • Naming seems to detour a cause-and-effect analysis  p. 37 list of instincts • James is suggesting that these instincts are inborn and adaptive • James did not clearly describe how one could distinguish between a reflex, an instinct, and a learned behaviour • Associative play- children play together, follow certain rules etc. MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 21 • Parallel play - children play next to each other • Play is a cognitive tool • Harry Harlow and the monkey/surrogate mother: monkey preferred not to play and rather hide himself in the corner • If we prevent an organism during the play period - it can affect them cognitively • If monkey was deprived than the monkey would not know how to interact • In primates, play, is natural • The cage deprived the monkeys of social interaction - some were not even provided with a cloth surrogate, but a wire surrogate that would just feed them • Maternal/paternal instinct: what we know naturally (just like how the monkeys did not know what to do) • According to Kagen, you have biological disposition to demonstrate shyness • Sibling rivalry: shy individuals have a sense of inferiority with those siblings that have a sense of superiority • Cleanliness is a value • Matt Webber - the values in religion influence the values we place on work • Values of hard work, production, thrift, education and living a conservative life • Jealousy - it is inherent  Freud: jealousy occurred when certain dominant members of primal and early society of humans, tended to prevent other members of the group from gaining access from the benefits of the group • William James: instincts are similar to reflexes, occur blindly the first time and are elicited by sensory stimuli. Instinct is an 'impulse to action' and thus considered motivated. Instinct is modifiable through experience. • As we move up the phylogenetic scale we are much more sensitive to experience • There are two principles account for variability of instinct:  That habit (ex. Learning) can inhibit an instinct; ex. Fear may inhibit curiosity, appeasement may inhibit aggression, and thus conflict may arise as to which instinct may occur [appeasement: the motivation to reduce conflict]  Ex. Appeasement in human society: peace treaty by ending a war  Animals have also evolved appeasement gestures that are adaptive  Instincts are transitory, only useful at certain times at a given developmental period; ex. Newly hatched chick instinctively follows a new, moving object early in life, but if exposed the first time later MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 22 in development it will run away. You have to expose the object to the animal during the critical period. Thus, critical period exists when instinctive behaviour occurs automatically but if critical period is past, imprinted behaviour does not occur (p. 45-46)  James saw instinct as providing a base from which new behaviours may be built; ex. New habits through learning. Thus, instincts are intermediate between reflexes and learning. (p. 37)  Instincts have evolved and are adaptive  William McDougall: instincts are more than dispositions to react; instincts have three components: a. Cognitive: is knowing an object (goal) can satisfy the need upon which the instinct is based b. Affective: is the feeling (emotion) that the object arouses in the organism c. Conative: is the instinctual striving toward (approach) or away (avoidance) from the object. We either approach the object or we move away and avoid it. In this case we can say that there is an approach-avoidance pattern. Ex. Death, the fear of "uncertainty and nonbeing" that is much a part of living - this is a fear that we rather avoid than approach. Ex. Fear of insects, because in our evolutionary past these instincts were harmful to us by harming us or passing on disease (animal phobia - inborn fears). Certain universal fears, such as fear of heights, fear of certain animals, fear of strange things, o Notion of preparedness: • Biological reparedness: we are prepared to react • Contra preparedness: we are not afraid of things • Unpreparedness: we have a disposition to learn and react (initially we are not frightened, but through social interactions we become frightened) o Three dispositions in children that seem to be inborn: fear, love, ?? o Maslow's motive to belong and motive to belong and be comforted • MAKE NOTE OF Chapter 3 pages: 62, 63, 64, 65, 67 • Pay attention to the notion of AROUSAL o Look at arousal as an automatic response o An instinct arouses us, a novel instinct arouses, us we might show fight or flight, arousal must be sufficiently strong for us to react o There are individual differences in arousal and sensitivity MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 23 o Arousal is accompanied by emotion and motivation o Figure 3.5!!! p. 65 o Role of the hypothalamus o It comes in to play in several motivated states  Fear  Rage  Love o it also regulates appetitive behaviour (hunger, thirst) o In conjunction of the PG (pituitary gland) responsible for sexual activity o Hypothalamus is important in the emotions that we display • 3 THEORIES OF EMOTION (ch 12, p. 358-362): o Cannon Bard theory: a physiological theory of emotional and puts emphasis on the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex (only physiological) o James Lung Theory: only physiological o Schacter Singer cognitive physiological theory: combines cognitive and physiological • Pages 62 and 67 o The arousal theory and the 3 theories of emotion o Remember a representative experiment that supports the theory o Not exactly tested on experiments* Example of McDougall’s three components: Cognitive: organism knows the object will satisfy the need based on past experience with the goal object Affective: organism is aroused or emotional about the goal object Conative: organism strives persistently toward the goal  Striving toward the goal shows the purposiveness of instinctual behaviour  McDougall’s notion of the purposiveness of instinctual behaviour suggests a Teleological analysis; the idea that behaviour serves some ultimate purpose Considering the cognitive capacities of humans, it is not unreasonable to assume one may predict or foresee the outcome of an action. Purposiveness applied to animal behaviour has not been considered a reasonable assumption, for teleological assumptions do not fit well with a Mechanistic model of animal action  Purpose is very difficult to define  Purpose has something of a teleological flavor to it  Purpose/intention/will are very illusive phenomenon (seem to be more a part of philosophy) MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 24  So much of psychology rests on biological research/theory & physiological foundations ANTHROPOMORPHIC FALLACY:  McDougall accused of  To assume that animals that are totally different than us possess qualities that are distinctive to humans e. Modifications of Instinct: McDougall suggested four ways: 1. Instinct may be activated by a goal-object, an idea of the object, or by related external objects or ideas 2. Movements through which the instinctive behaviour occurs may be modified as when curiosity instinct for the external environment changes to more intellectual pursuits; e.g. a child explores the physical world and then the world of ideas and symbols through language; enjoys being read to and learns to red, draw, and engages in role playing through play 3. Several instincts may be initiated and resulting instinct is a blend of these. For example, sexual behaviour may be a “blend” of curiosity and mating instincts and resulting behaviour may be flirting, a compromise reflecting both instincts.  Curiosity &mating, the two come together and it may represent a compromise in the form of flirting  When we dream, the image we remember may be the result of several other images that have been combined  CONDENSATION: several sources contribute to the dream image  The individual’s behaviour is a lot more complex than what appears at first glance  E.g. why is that person talking to others? Maybe it is because they are sociable, but it could be other things as well 4. An instinct may become organized around particular objects, ideas or situations and become less responsive to other objects, ideas, or situations • Psychoanalytic terms to explain this: fixation • e.g. I rarely see you anymore. When I see you, you seem to be outside of where we are and what were are doing • As the instinct is more focused, fixation may occur as Freud suggested • If an individual is fixated or dominated by a particular routine, it is called obsessive compulsive pattern or disorder a. Anthropomorphism: McDougal believed he could infer the feelings of other organisms by asking himself how he would feel in a similar situation, thus heaping criticism from other more experienced behavioural scientists I DON’T KNOW WHAT WORD THIS WAS a. The subjectivity of anthropomorphism was rejected Tolman (1923) tried to correct fallacies of instinct theory: MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 25 1. Instincts as descriptive labels must specify conditions under which behaviour occurs; naming does not explain behaviour 2. No clear criteria for what is instinctive and what is learned; unclear definitions must be examined 3. Instincts are not innate ideas or knowledge, as in the philosophy of Plato 4. Resolve confusion around instincts and habits; habits are learned and instincts may provide the foundation for subsequent habit formation a. Criticisms of Instinct Theories as shown by Kuo's (1921) Analysis: 1. No agreement as to what types or how many instincts exists. Lists of instincts are arbitrary and depend on the researcher's interests 2. Behaviors called instincts are not innate but learned, built up from random responses, some of which are reinforced-retained- and others unreinforced, extinguished 3. External stimuli cause behaviour and not internal motive states Tolman suggested ways to correct instinct concept: • Restructure concept in behavioural terms and not subjective terms • Concentrate on goals to which behaviour is directed; goals are fixed and behaviors may vary through learning LECTURE 5: CHAPTER 2: • Instinct is fundamental to motivation as is the concept of drive • Both of them imply an energy that activates or initiates an action • Freud talked about in terms of drive • Behaviourists wanted to emphasize the role of environment and its effect on behaviour • Thorndike, acknowledged motivation but preferred to talk in terms of stimulus and response • Watson, talked in terms of stimulus and response, as well as Skinner • Stimulus-Response o Has an internal state, such as motivation • In science, "the principle of parsimony" • Stimulus-response represents an alternative way of conceptualizing of behaviour in terms of "parsimony" MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 26 I. CLASSICAL ETHOLOGY: a specialized branch of biology emphasizing the study of instinct, including: o appetitive and consummatory behaviour (goal directed behaviour) o fixed action patters (FAPs) o key stimuli (salient stimuli that serve as a signal) o vacuum activity (organisms behaves and it is default to identify the prompt of that behaviour; spontaneous action, difficult to identify the CAUSE of action) p. 42 o intention movements (movements that signal another organism as to what the intention of the behaviour if the intending organism is) o conflict behaviour (there is approach behaviour, there is avoidance behaviour, organisms experience approach-avoidance CONFLICT) o reaction chains (several behaviours that form a chain and pattern; much more complex than a reflex) o Imprinting (important in ethology) Ethograms of behaviours for different species based on careful observation of organisms in their natural habitat are constructed. A. Categories of behaviour 1. Appetitive behaviour: restless, searching, that is flexible and adaptive 2. Consummatory behaviour: coordinated, fixed patterns of responding to specific stimuli 3. Action specific energy (ASE): each behaviour has its own motive-energy source 4. Innate releasing mechanism (IRM): the "key" or stimulus that allows behaviour to be released, ex. Environmental stimuli or the behaviour of another species member • Reflex action depends on a key stimulus to prompt the action • According to baowlman the attachment theorist, the infant is already predisposed to act in response of a key stimulus (example to act when presented by a smiling human face) • Those who do not readily act upon and response by the stimuli presented by the adult caregiver, are those children with autism • They may respond not by a normal response 5. Key stimuli: • Environmental stimuli, and social releases, ex. Behaviours of other members of the species that 'release' behaviour in the other, ex. Postures, plumage, colouration  Key stimuli are simple stimuli, ex. Red belly of the male stickleback 'releases' aggressive in other males that have set-up territories • Configurationally stimuli may be natural or artificial and may trigger behaviour • Super-normal stimuli larger than a typical stimulus may trigger behaviour (p. 40-41) MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 27  In ethological terms, large stimuli may signal more resources and thus greater success in raising offspring as when a male or female chooses a mate and large may indicate greater protection from predators, thus protecting offspring until their independence. Thus super-normal stimuli may provide an 'evolutionary advantage'. • Fixed action patterns (FAPs) have been studied and are considered to be as follows:  Species-specific motor patterns that are rigid, stereotyped, and 'blind' (occur automatically)  With variability comes unpredictability  That lower organisms behaviour is rather fixed, responds to specific stimuli, and the opportunity for variability and predictability are rather limited  FAPs are invariant (little variability), spontaneous in that not only does FAP occur to external stimuli but to build-up of internal tension that serves to release the FAP in vacuo (p.42) - without a key stimulus, and independent of learning, however learning may influence the FAP and maturational readiness as well o There is individual differences in maturational readiness o Maturational readiness is also important in learning  Lorenz experiment: Once the duckling became imprinted (showed this FAP) it continued to follow Lorenz whenever it saw him move  This is also noted in the human infant actions - once they crawl, they will crawl towards you, once they walk, they will walk towards you A. Intention movements and social releasers: low energy, incomplete, responses indicating that energy is building in the instinctive system. Intention movements may become social releasers and ritualized through the course of evolution and thus are adaptive 1. Intention movements communicate and in humans, shifting weight on one leg from two, may signal impending departure. The frequency of unequal weight stances is related to departure and these shifts in weight from one leg to the other signals impending departure • Weight shifts were exaggerated when one departed alone • Looking away, silence, looking at your watch, tapping, are all signals of termination • Display behaviour: we display resources  Animals display behaviour by marking their territory for example, which signal the other party that this organism has resources (tied to reproduction and intimidating a potential opponent) 2. Intention movements communicate motivational intentions MOTIVATION LECTURE NOTES 28 A. Motivational conflict: when two or more key stimuli are present, which behaviour occurs? 1. Successive ambivalent behaviour: the alternation between incomplete responses as in attack and flight LECTURE 6 CHAPTER 3 • Page 65 Figure 3.5 IMPORTANT • Don’t need to know how to label but know specific parts of the brain • Arousal Theory: how does the organism become activated? Understand motivation by viewing it on a continuum of behavioural activation. Continuum, ranges from low levels of arousal (coma and sleep) to very high levels (stress) (Fig. 3.1 page 62) a. Inverted U Function: behaviour most efficient at optimal level of arousal. Yerkes-Dodson Law: a relationship between level of arousal and efficient performance (Fig. 3.2 page 63) • We tend to avoid negative stress - we can tend to the negative stressor initially but later on we will avoid • No matter whether if the stressor is positive or negative it activates arousal • Below the optimal level we are not aroused, and our behavioural efficiency may not be good
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