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PSYC 2230 (205)

Lecture 2

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

LECTURE 2▯ CHAPTERS 1-2 ▯ CHAPTER 1 MOTIVATION, CONCEPTS AND MEASUREMENT A. Concept of motivation (M): forces acting on or within an organism to initiate action (p. 4). Motivated behaviour (B) displays intensity and persistence. • Motivation includes intensity, persistance, vigor and direction, and a goal. B. Measurement of M: not measured directly; manipulates stimulus (S) condition and observe behavioural response (R) (p. 5). • We observe some stimulus, some force, and we then observe the resulting response. • We may attempt to control an organisms behaviour by controlling the variables (environment, internal and external forces) that initiate a reaction. • We can introduce manipulations in environmental (external) variables such as light, darkness, sound, heat and cold(gradation low to intense). These are physical features of the environment Such features also have a stress quality; too much of a variable • • We can manipulate internal variables such as hunger, thirst; depravation. • We create the motive and need of hunger and thirst by depriving an organism of such. Through depravation we can create intense hunger/ thirst. • Sensory depravation: depriving an organism of variability within the environment it is located within. • Can give rise to boredom (boredom is an aroused state) • introverts and extroverts seek out different types of arousal Deprivation to do without arouses us to seek out a correction for the • state. • The correction moves us from an absence to a presence, something lacking to no longer in a state of lack; homeostasis, equilibrium. The balance is always temporary because we always have desire and motivation, even if the desire is not vigorous or intense. We don't measure motivation directly, it's an underlying state; we measure • motivation by observing behaviour, persistence, vigour and goal direction of behaviour. we infer that there must be some underlying state (motivation) for the intense behaviour. C. S is deprivation and speed of running in a maze is response (R) • We infer motivation from the change in behaviour • Motivation is an Intervening Variable (IV): serves to link the S and R and as an IV it provides an explanation for the relationship between S and R (see fig. 1.1 and 1.2, p. 5). • In early trials, motivation is intense, and after several trials, organism is no longer hungry, and therefore once hunger is satisfied it no longer is motivated. • when one motive is satisfied, one motive moves forward to capture the organism • a motive will capture our attention; will dominate until it is addressed. • dominant and subordinate, figure-ground ▯ p.62 Inverted U function • when arousal is optimal, performance is at its highest • we don't want to over deprive, or under deprive; and we may discover there is an optimal level of depravation • over-arousal can disorganize I Increasing Arousal ▯ ▯ D. Motivation is a Performance Variable (PV): When enough is present, B is performed. ▯ CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION: ▯ A. Activation as in the production of overt and covert behaviour (p. 6). B. Persistence as in ongoing performance of B C. Vigor as in forceful behaviour D. Direction as in which choice of goal is made. Measure direction in terms of preference test of possible choices (p. 7). ▯ ▯ Categories of Analysis: study motivation from different viewpoints. ▯ A. Nomothetic: a search for general laws by studying large groups and what holds for one group may hold for other groups (species; p. 7-8). Idiographic: a search of individual differences or how organisms differ from each . r e h t o ▯ B. Innate vs Acquired: McDougall and James saw motivated behaviour as controlled by innate motives called instincts. Acquired motives in contrast are learned and incentive motivation; the value placed on a goal may be learned and that goal becomes through experience and learning to be valued. ▯ C. Internal vs External: needs are sources of motivation and are internal. Deprivation brings about needs as internal sources of motivated behaviour. Whereas incentives and goals are external sources of motivation. ▯ D. Mechanic vs Cognitive: are motivational processes blind, mechanical, triggered automatically by internal and external sources wit
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