MOTIVATION, CONCEPTS AND MEASUREMENT
A. Concept of motivation (M): forces acting on or within an organism to initiate action
(p. 4). Motivated behaviour (B) displays intensity and persistence.
• Motivation includes intensity, persistance, vigor and direction, and a goal.
B. Measurement of M: not measured directly; manipulates stimulus (S) condition and
observe behavioural response (R) (p. 5).
• We observe some stimulus, some force, and we then observe the resulting
• We may attempt to control an organisms behaviour by controlling the variables
(environment, internal and external forces) that initiate a reaction.
• We can introduce manipulations in environmental (external) variables such as
light, darkness, sound, heat and cold(gradation low to intense). These are
physical features of the environment
Such features also have a stress quality; too much of a variable
• We can manipulate internal variables such as hunger, thirst; depravation.
• We create the motive and need of hunger and thirst by depriving an
organism of such. Through depravation we can create intense hunger/
• Sensory depravation: depriving an organism of variability within the
environment it is located within.
• Can give rise to boredom (boredom is an aroused state)
• introverts and extroverts seek out different types of arousal
Deprivation to do without arouses us to seek out a correction for the
• The correction moves us from an absence to a presence, something
lacking to no longer in a state of lack; homeostasis, equilibrium. The
balance is always temporary because we always have desire and
motivation, even if the desire is not vigorous or intense.
We don't measure motivation directly, it's an underlying state; we measure
motivation by observing behaviour, persistence, vigour and goal direction of
behaviour. we infer that there must be some underlying state (motivation) for
the intense behaviour.
C. S is deprivation and speed of running in a maze is response (R)
• We infer motivation from the change in behaviour • Motivation is an Intervening Variable (IV): serves to link the S and R and as an IV it
provides an explanation for the relationship between S and R (see fig. 1.1 and 1.2, p.
• In early trials, motivation is intense, and after several trials, organism is no longer
hungry, and therefore once hunger is satisfied it no longer is motivated.
• when one motive is satisfied, one motive moves forward to capture the
• a motive will capture our attention; will dominate until it is addressed.
• dominant and subordinate, figure-ground
Inverted U function
• when arousal is optimal, performance is at its highest
• we don't want to over deprive, or under deprive; and we may discover there is an
optimal level of depravation
• over-arousal can disorganize
I Increasing Arousal
D. Motivation is a Performance Variable (PV): When enough is present, B is
CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION:
A. Activation as in the production of overt and covert behaviour (p. 6).
B. Persistence as in ongoing performance of B
C. Vigor as in forceful behaviour
D. Direction as in which choice of goal is made. Measure direction in terms of
preference test of possible choices (p. 7).
▯ Categories of Analysis: study motivation from different viewpoints.
A. Nomothetic: a search for general laws by studying large groups and what holds for
one group may hold for other groups (species; p. 7-8).
Idiographic: a search of individual differences or how organisms differ from each
. r e h t o
B. Innate vs Acquired: McDougall and James saw motivated behaviour as controlled
by innate motives called instincts.
Acquired motives in contrast are learned and incentive motivation; the value placed on a
goal may be learned and that goal becomes through experience and learning to be
C. Internal vs External: needs are sources of motivation and are internal. Deprivation
brings about needs as internal sources of motivated behaviour. Whereas incentives and
goals are external sources of motivation.
D. Mechanic vs Cognitive: are motivational processes blind, mechanical, triggered
automatically by internal and external sources wit