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Lecture 4

4 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

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January 27th, 2014 LECTURE 4▯ ▯ Evolution▯ • progressive change in organisms across time▯ • developed by darwin and alfred wallace▯ • organisms with adaptive characteristics will survive, reproduce, and pass the benefits into the offspring▯ • the interaction between genes and the environment leads to a process called natural selection▯ • natural selection can influence genes in three ways▯ • viability▯ • fertility▯ • fercundanty▯ ▯ • male sexual motivation is strong and opportunistic, the male is prepared to mate at any time (p 26)▯ • male generally has less investment in care of the young▯ • however, male wants to have its genes represented in the next generation▯ ▯ XI. Viability, fertility, fercundanty*▯ ▯ XII. Sexual Selection▯ • represents a special class of natural selection and occurs when there is competition for mate, or when one member of a species is chosen by the other.▯ • Females in many species make the selection exerting a selection pressure on genes of the male that seems to affect fertility▯ 1. Protracted developmental Period of offspring requiring care before taking an independent existence is of concern; female invests more time and energy. Thus items 1 and 2 influence mate selection is more important for female than male.▯ 2. Resource accumulation and time investment are qualities that the male should possess in order to impress the the female’s mate selection (p. 27-28).▯ ▯ B. Parental investment model▯ 1. Buss and Feingold found that males do display resources and women accord more weight to a man’s socioeconomic status (SES) and qualities of ambition, character, intelligence, with resource accumulation being of particular importance. ▯ 2. Reproductive value of the female is when selection pressure is on the female’s genes for qualities such as youthfulness and health. Thus, according to evolutionary psychology, women competing for males would be motivated to engage in behaviours that enhance appearance▯ • cosmetic industry targets this, and takes into account evolutionary psychology▯ • cosmetic surgury, as well, has relationship to the phenomenon of mate selection
 Summary: overall, motivation seems to be overdetermined; many factors, variable, systems seem to be operative▯ • Biology seems to play a prominent role in understanding mate selection, and gene reproduction.▯ ▯ ▯ CHAPTER 2: GENETICS AND MOTIVATION▯ ▯ I. Instincts: genetically motivated behaviours that occur when certain conditions are present and require no learning (p.36 & 37). ▯ ▯ A. Early instinct theories were popular in late 19th and early 20th centuries. Concept of instinct acted as a theoretical bridge between animal and human behaviour and thus evolution applied to both humans and animals and to physical structure, behaviour, and the mind.▯ 1. Therefore, a continuity between human and animal behaviour is promoted; we are different, but we are similar to animal species▯ • Critics of the instinct concept as it applied to psychology; hones into the nominal fallacy: naming a behaviour as an instinct does not explain it; furthermore does not explain the causes and elucidate mechanisms of it (within psychology)▯ • Cause-effect analysis attempts to do this.▯ 2. William James: instincts are similar to reflexes, occur blindly the first time, and are elicited by sensory stimuli. Instinct is an ‘impulse to action’ and thus considered motivated. Instinct is modifiable through experience.▯ ▯ a. Two principles account for variability of instinct: 1st is that habit (ex. learning) can inhibit an instinct (ex. fear may inhibit)▯ ▯ 3. William McDougal (p. 37-39): insincts are more than dispositions to react; instincts have three components:▯ 1. Cognitive: is knowing an object (goal) can satisfy the need upon which the instinct is based. Organisms know the the object will satisfy the need based on past experience with the goal-object. ▯ 2. Affective: is the feeling (emotion) that the object arouses the organism.▯ 3. Conative: is the instinctual striving toward (approach) or away (avoidance) from the object. Organism strives persistently toward the goal. Ex. Physiological reflect, is part of a larger instinctual method of survival. Humans, on that regard, are variable. One may be characteristically inclined to ‘fight’ while another may be inclined to ‘flee’. ▯ • In humans, predictability is not as constant as in lower species▯ • An imprinted behaviour is irreversible, has survival value, and occurs around the same time in a species (called critical period; species is most sensitive to responding to stimuli)▯ • Humans also display critical or sensitive period in humans in whi
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