Class Notes (839,328)
Canada (511,271)
York University (35,583)
Psychology (4,109)
PSYC 2230 (205)
Lecture

Lecture 4

4 Pages
60 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2230
Professor
Frank Marchese

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Description
January 27th, 2014 LECTURE 4▯ ▯ Evolution▯ • progressive change in organisms across time▯ • developed by darwin and alfred wallace▯ • organisms with adaptive characteristics will survive, reproduce, and pass the benefits into the offspring▯ • the interaction between genes and the environment leads to a process called natural selection▯ • natural selection can influence genes in three ways▯ • viability▯ • fertility▯ • fercundanty▯ ▯ • male sexual motivation is strong and opportunistic, the male is prepared to mate at any time (p 26)▯ • male generally has less investment in care of the young▯ • however, male wants to have its genes represented in the next generation▯ ▯ XI. Viability, fertility, fercundanty*▯ ▯ XII. Sexual Selection▯ • represents a special class of natural selection and occurs when there is competition for mate, or when one member of a species is chosen by the other.▯ • Females in many species make the selection exerting a selection pressure on genes of the male that seems to affect fertility▯ 1. Protracted developmental Period of offspring requiring care before taking an independent existence is of concern; female invests more time and energy. Thus items 1 and 2 influence mate selection is more important for female than male.▯ 2. Resource accumulation and time investment are qualities that the male should possess in order to impress the the female’s mate selection (p. 27-28).▯ ▯ B. Parental investment model▯ 1. Buss and Feingold found that males do display resources and women accord more weight to a man’s socioeconomic status (SES) and qualities of ambition, character, intelligence, with resource accumulation being of particular importance. ▯ 2. Reproductive value of the female is when selection pressure is on the female’s genes for qualities such as youthfulness and health. Thus, according to evolutionary psychology, women competing for males would be motivated to engage in behaviours that enhance appearance▯ • cosmetic industry targets this, and takes into account evolutionary psychology▯ • cosmetic surgury, as well, has relationship to the phenomenon of mate selection
 Summary: overall, motivation seems to be overdetermined; many factors, variable, systems seem to be operative▯ • Biology seems to play a prominent role in understanding mate selection, and gene reproduction.▯ ▯ ▯ CHAPTER 2: GENETICS AND MOTIVATION▯ ▯ I. Instincts: genetically motivated behaviours that occur when certain conditions are present and require no learning (p.36 & 37). ▯ ▯ A. Early instinct theories were popular in late 19th and early 20th centuries. Concept of instinct acted as a theoretical bridge between animal and human behaviour and thus evolution applied to both humans and animals and to physical structure, behaviour, and the mind.▯ 1. Therefore, a continuity between human and animal behaviour is promoted; we are different, but we are similar to animal species▯ • Critics of the instinct concept as it applied to psychology; hones into the nominal fallacy: naming a behaviour as an instinct does not explain it; furthermore does not explain the causes and elucidate mechanisms of it (within psychology)▯ • Cause-effect analysis attempts to do this.▯ 2. William James: instincts are similar to reflexes, occur blindly the first time, and are elicited by sensory stimuli. Instinct is an ‘impulse to action’ and thus considered motivated. Instinct is modifiable through experience.▯ ▯ a. Two principles account for variability of instinct: 1st is that habit (ex. learning) can inhibit an instinct (ex. fear may inhibit)▯ ▯ 3. William McDougal (p. 37-39): insincts are more than dispositions to react; instincts have three components:▯ 1. Cognitive: is knowing an object (goal) can satisfy the need upon which the instinct is based. Organisms know the the object will satisfy the need based on past experience with the goal-object. ▯ 2. Affective: is the feeling (emotion) that the object arouses the organism.▯ 3. Conative: is the instinctual striving toward (approach) or away (avoidance) from the object. Organism strives persistently toward the goal. Ex. Physiological reflect, is part of a larger instinctual method of survival. Humans, on that regard, are variable. One may be characteristically inclined to ‘fight’ while another may be inclined to ‘flee’. ▯ • In humans, predictability is not as constant as in lower species▯ • An imprinted behaviour is irreversible, has survival value, and occurs around the same time in a species (called critical period; species is most sensitive to responding to stimuli)▯ • Humans also display critical or sensitive period in humans in whi
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit