Motivation 2230: LECTURE 4 Monday, January 27 , 2014
Continued…from last week
X. Evolution: the progressive change in organism across time. Developed both by Darwin and
-Physical and behavioural elements that are beneficial and adaptive will continue to exist
and be evident in the gene pool
-Organism with adaptive characteristics will survive, reproduce, and pass on benefits to
offspring. Interaction between genes and the environment leads to a process called
-Male sexual motivation is strong and opportunistic
12. Sexual Selection: represents a special class of natural selection and occurs when there Is
a competition for mates, or when one member of a species is ‘chosen’ by the other.
Females in many species make the ‘selection’ exerting a ‘selection pressure’ on
genes of the male that seems to affect fertility
1. Protracted developmental period of offspring requiring care before taking an independent
existence is of concern; female invests more time and energy, This, items 1 and 2
influence male selection since mate selection is more important for female than male.
2. Resource accumulation and time investment are qualities that the male should possess to
‘impress’ female’s mate selection.
B. Parental investment model: Males in competition for mates engage in behaviour to display
1. Buss and Feingold found that males do display resources and women accord more weight to
a man’s socioeconomic status (SES) and qualities of ambition, character, intelligence,
with resource accumulation beings a particular importance
2. Reproductive Value of the female is when selection pressure is when female’s genes for
qualities such as youthfulness and health. Thus according to evolutionary psychology,
women competing for males would be motivated to engage in behaviours that enhance
Summary: Overall, motivation seems to be over determined; many factors, variables, systems
seem to be operative.
Chapter 2: GENETICS AND MOTIVATION
1. Instincts: genetically motivated behaviours that occur when certain conditions are presents
an requires no learning
A. early instinct theories were popular in late 19 and early 20 centuries. Concept of instinct
acted as a ‘theoretical bridge’ between animal and human behaviour and this evolution
applied to both humans and animals and to physical structure, behaviour and the mind.
-Therefore, continuity between human and animal behaviour is promoted. Motivation 2230: LECTURE 4 Monday, January 27 , 2014
1. Nominal Fallacy: naming behaviour as instinctive does not explain it. Labelling is not an
explanation, rather, must specify conditions that led to behaviour (B). Cause effect
analysis attempts to do this.
2. William James: instincts are similar to reflexes, occur blindly the first time and are
elicited by sensory stimuli. Instinct is an ‘impulse to action’ and this considered
motivated. Instinct is modifiable through experience.
A. Two principles account for variability of instinct: 1 is that habit (e.g., learning) can
inhibit an instinct, e.g., fear may inhibit fear to a particular stimulus.
B. William McDougall: instincts are more than dispositions to react; instincts have 3
-1. Cognitive: Is knowing an object (goal) can satisfy the need upon which the instinct is
-2. Affective: is the feeling (emotion) that the object arouses in the organism.
-3. Conative: Is the instinctual striving toward (approach) or away (avoidance) from the