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6 Pages

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

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thPSYC2230A Lecture May 8 2014 Chapter 2 Genetics and Motivation What is the relationship between genetics and motivation i Instincts genetically motivated behaviours that occur when certain conditions are present and require no learning p 36 ththa Early instinct theories were popular in late 19 and early 20 centuries Concept of instinct acted as theoretical bridge between animal and human behaviour and thus evolution applied to both humans and animals to physical structure to behaviour and the mind i Therefore a continuity between human and animal behaviour is promoted 1 Nominal fallacy naming behaviour as instinctive does not explain it Labeling is not an explanation rather necessary to specify conditions that led to behaviour B causeeffect analysis attempts to do this 2 William James instincts are similar to reflexes occur blindly the first time and are elicited by stimuli Instinct is an impulse to action and thus motivates B instinct is modifiable however through experience and learningInstinct is boarder and reflexes is narrowerReflexes are modified by experienceInstinct are modified by experience as well foundation for subsequence development sta Two principles account for variability instinct 1 is that a leaned habit can inhibit an instinct eg fear may inhibit curiosity appeasement may inhibit aggression and thus conflict may arise as to which instinct might occur ndb 2 is that instincts are transitory useful at certain times at a given developmental period eg newly hatched chick instinctively follows new moving object early in life Exposed the first time later in development it will run away Thus critical period exists when instinctive imprinted behaviour occurs automatically but if critical period is past imprinted behaviour does not occur see p 4546 c James saw instinct as providing a base from which new behaviours may be built ie new habits through learning Thus instincts are intermediate between reflexes and learning p 37 d William McDougall instincts are more than dispositions to react instinct have three essential components 1 Cognitive is knowing an object can satisfy the need upon which the instinct is based 2 Affective is the feeling emotion that the object arouses in the organism 3 Conative is the instinctual striving toward approach or away avoidance from the object Example of McDougalls three components Cognitive organism knows the will satisfy the need based on past experience with the goalobject Affective organism is arousedmotivatedemotional about the goalobject Conative organism strives persistentlyvigorously toward the goal Page 1 of 6
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