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PSYC 2230 (205)


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York University
PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

thPSYC2230A Lecture May 20 2014 Midterm7080 multiple choicesMatching sectionShort answer section7930pm Chapter 2 Imprinting instinct and Learning intermingle Imprinting as socialization process whereby the process of becoming attached to the object is both innate and learnedCharacteristics of Imprinting 1 Occurs during a limited critical period in early development 2 Imprinting is permanent and irreversible and influences species identification and sexual preferences in adulthoodReversibility of imprinting in birds depends on whether the species is Nidifugousleaves nest shortly after hatchingor Nidicolousremains longer in nest after hatching Nidifugous show more reversibility in imprinting whereas Nidicolous show more permanent attachment to imprinted object 3 Imprinting is independent of rewardImprinting occurs automatically rather than in a trial and error fashion that would suggest a learning process However an imprinted stimulus may be used to reinforce other behaviours4 Not all objects are equally effective as imprinted objects stimuliFor example colour in chicks more dominant and shape less so Further maternal call is preferred over other potential imprinting stimuliIII Human Ethology many human behaviours seem to have instinctive components 1 Facial expressions seem to be universal and not learned according to EiblEibesfeldt a Facial expressions in blind and deaf children show that they smile when happy and cry when sad b Eyebrow flick in greeting an acquaintance c Appeasement gestures are behaviours that inhibit aggression d Facial recognition for happiness sadness fear anger surprise and disgust are reliably associated with specific facial movements p 4950 Happiness and surprise are easiest to recognize Facial expressions are longdistance transmitters of emotion and have an adaptive value e Shyness according to Kagan has a genetic basis that must interact with the environment such as when exposed to chronic stress of older siblings who take toys tease yell and this may sufficient to trigger behavioural inhibition Page 1 of 5
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