LECTURE 2: SEPTEMBER 18TH, 2012
➔ REFER TO CONDENSED OPTIONAL BOOK ON SYLLABUS (recommended).
➔ REFER TO HANDOUT → summary of last class
➔ I. Motivation—What is it? (continuance of last week)
➔ (a and b) Forces can be external or internal and initiate and direct behavior. Motivation
describes the intensity of behavior (less persistent, more vigorous). More intense behavior
more motivation → an inference we make. Example: person is running fast (highly motivated,
intense, persistent. There is variation in intensity. This could be due to competing motives (start
intense and then back down → “I want to do this, but wait is it right if I do?”
➔ Conflict and competing motives → disruption in ongoing behavior.
➔ (c) Motivation is to understand the direction of behavior → pursuing goals because maybe
they are essential, desired. Sometimes we are confronted with a situation where it is hard to
identify the person's motivational direction.
➔ (d) It is a concept used to explain why behavior occurs in one situation and not in others →
maybe certain aspects encourage or discourage behavior. Goal direction: “I am going to turn
right”. You know where you are going. To follow through may be due to an incentive that drives
one to do so. You may be quite assertive in a familial friendship and less assertive at work.
There are always influencing factors that excite or inhibit actions.
➔ (e) It increases the ability to predict behavior. Example: you are hungry, you have a need, and
it is noticed that you look through the refrigerator. Therefore, we can infer that the motive is to
fulfill one's hunger needs. By knowing the motivation we can predict the behavior and by
observing we can predict the motive.
➔ II. Measure of motivation: Never measure directly but it is inferred on the basis of what the
organism does following some manipulation. Example: depriving the rat of food. It becomes
restless therefore we can see it has a hunger need and drive due to our manipulation. It allows
us to infer our manipulation was effective.
➔ (a) Manipulate a stimulus condition and observe resulting behavior. Example: deprivation.
➔ Refer to Chapter 1 page 5 to see the Rat Experiment that is an example of Stimulus
Response Psychology. Stimulus: deprivation. Response: running the maze. The animal is
acquiring a cognitive map; getting to know the layout of the maze is to get to the goal box. The
animal moves through the maze quickly (highly motivated) and the animal makes initially a lot
of errors (animal reduces errors) → manipulation causes hunger motive which leads to initiating
excitement in the animal to start its motivational process. Food reinforces hunger and acts as a
reward to strengthen its behavior once it reaches the goal box.After many trials, the animal
starts to move slowly (around the 20 trial) → it knows where the food is now so it developed
an expectancy (cognitive construct). It developed a layout of the maze and an expectancy.
Motivation is decreasing because its hunger is already being satisfied. Motivated by the
attractiveness or incentive value of the goal. We do not always eat due to biological hunger.
Sometimes it is a social aspect.
➔ Example:Anorexia (cannot say it is due to reduced hunger). There are other variables. Could be
due to social and psychological aspects instead of biological.
➔ Maze: animal masters maze and curiosity and exploring factors are reduced. Hunger is therefore
not the only motive. There may be other motives operating and to be taken into account.
➔ Power motivation: control. Achievement motivation: I can do this now. ➔ Example: Monkey with cloth and wire mother experiment (creature comfort motive: warmth
and security of cloth, wire feeds biological hunger).
➔ We do not have just biological needs → Humans live by bread but not by bread alone.
➔ Novelty, exploration, curiosity etc.
➔ Control: turning a light on and off.
➔ Nervous system requires a certain amount of stimulation.
➔ Someone who finds it hard to focus and not be fixated on a certain stimulus such as a constant
sound in class are those who are OCD (obsessive compulsive).
➔ Those who are addicted → fixated and engage in ritual.
➔ (b) Deprive the organism of food and observe food-getting behavior
➔ (c) Measure hours without food (deprivation) and measure speed of running from start box to
goal box in maze.
➔ Figure ground → there is a dominant motive that is clear such as I am hungry and there is a
number of other motives in the background and once one motive is satisfied another can emerge
and so on. Preoccupied by hunger, thirst, fatigue and so on. Satisfy these and then other motives
emerge and capture you attention.
➔ Picture of circle: cycle of motivation, constant flow of behavior, gap in circle means that
something needs to be fulfilled which is about filling the gap and fulfilling the need →
➔ (d) Motivation is a change in behavior that occurs following deprivation and is inferred from
behavior before and after deprivation.
➔ (e) Motivation is an intervening variable that comes between the stimulus and response.
➔ (f) Motivation serves to link the stimulus variable (deprivation) and the response variable
(speed of running).
➔ (g) See Figure 1.1 and 1.2 on page 5