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Lecture 5


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York University
PSYC 2230
N/ A

MOTIVATION LECTURE 5: OCTOBER 9TH, 2012 TOPIC: REVIEW OF CHAPTER 2, CONTINUANCE OF CHAPTER 3 WHILE COVERING CHAPTER 7 ➔ Test number one: chapters 1, 2, 3, 7, handouts, lecture, and additional pages: 357-362. ◦ Multiple choice questions, matching questions, short answer questions (with a choice). ◦ You will have the entire class period to do this exam on October 23 .rd ◦ Will receive a handout when you hand in your exam. ◦ Can organize short answer responses in point form but then you have to explain the points. ◦ Next week: there may be an additional room (2 rooms, students divided for midterm). Will find out next week. ◦ Will receive a handout for each chapter (these will be handed out today). ➢ Instinct Theory – Kuo  Behaviour is aroused by external stimuli rather than the result of genetic programming. ➢ Key Concept Theory  Fixed action patterns  example: conflict behaviour, key stimuli, appetitive behaviour etc. (refer to previous note).  Conflict behaviour, displacement TODAYS LECTURE: ➢ Imprinting  Socialization process involving instinct and learned components.  Lorenz:  1) The attachment process occurs during a limited period in organism's life. Strength of imprinting peaks during critical period.  POSSIBLE EXAM QUESTION: the organism is most susceptible to being imprinted during the critical period.  2) Imprinting process is irreversible. Thus, once established it does not extinguish and later sexual preferences of adult result from this attachment.  Once a lower species is imprinted that imprinting behaviour does not disappear. It persists. It will interact with experience and through learning may be modified a little bit but it will not be extinguished.  Mammal matures and migrates to its own species (survival of individual and species).  3) Imprinting is independent from external reward. It is an automatic process rather than a trial and error one.  Learning interacts with imprinting in the case of the human infant.  Examples of human infants attachment signals: crying, reaching out, smiling (is initially a reflex smile) later on this smile becomes intentional (infant will smile at mother for instance and may retreat from a stranger who they cannot identify), cradles, coos, grasp reflex (example: grab finger). • This adds to the attachment relationship between the adult and child. • There is a number of evolved signals that infants obtain serve the basis of a bond. • Adults: hold hands (grasping reflex is still retained). ➢ Ethologists study lower animals and lower species. ➢ Human Ethology:  Some to many behaviour patterns are innate.  Facial Expressions – seem to be universal and not learned. Smiling, laughing, weeping etc. Found in all cultures. Deaf children smile when happy and frown or cry when unhappy. Related to facial expressions is the eyebrow flick upon greeting an acquaintance and may represent a signal recognition. Studies show that happiness and surprise are the easiest facial expressions to recognize, even at a long distance from the observed. • We can learn additional facial expressions and modify the main ones. • Why do some babies smile more than others? - despite reflexes it is due to individual differences. If the difference benefits the species it will be become more dominant and emphasized. The more aroused an organism is the more persistent it will be in the critical period. • Why do we persist in behaviour that is discouraged? - highly motivated. • Temperament – born with an inborn type of drive. • Achievement, power, these lead us as University students to persist?  Yes there are expressions that are culture specific according to anthropologists.  2) Shyness  Extreme shyness may have a genetic component expressed in differences in arousability. Low level of arousability may be related to social inhibition. Kagan and others suggest that tendency toward shyness requires a chronic form of stress such as being later born and being exposed to older siblings who tease and yell. This may trigger behavioural inhibition. Thus, genetic disposition to behave in a given way may require some environmental circumstances to trigger this disposition.  Additional innate behaviours:  Key Stimuli • Such as physical features of human infant release adult human instinctive behaviour. These key stimuli in the form of actions and manners of the infant have survival value.  Flirting • As a type of ritualized foreplay involves both approach and avoidance components which certainly obtain the notice of the other. • Avoidance – not being completely open – forming mystery • Approach – arousal and counter arousal – intrigued and interested on the one hand but have fear at the same time. Fear versus curiousity (see saw effect). • Approach-Avoidance • Look and then look away. (Looking: curiousity and looking away: fear). • Explore various tactics to show one's intentions of wanting to attract the other. • Example: light touch on the shoulder – flirting • Flirting is minimal, effective and typically seen as not offensive. • Example: playing hard to get – forward and retreat. • Example: teasing as a form of flirting. • Example: flirting through texting (do not even have to come into immediate contact). Some can flirt over the phone and then cannot in person. What happens? • Tone of voice (sexy voice, sweet, particular vocabulary). • What sources do we consult in terms of the verbal exchange? • Innuendo - “I like your pants”. • Nodding, lowering eyes. • What do we consult when words escape us? • Valentine's Day – Institutionalized Flirt Day • Buy gifts and cards that speak for us. • When words fail us others supplement – poetry, lyrical statements. • Flirting is symbolic because it is communicated through language. • Our interactions or either more direct or more indirect and symbolic. • Double Entendre – certain expressions have more than one meaning (we may say things we do not mean to express – misunderstanding).  Kissing  As a form of ritualized feeding behaviour that has been abbreviated. In terms of our evolutionary past, by chewing food first and feeding it to the infant this invariably requires vocalization which then becomes transformed into kissing and “baby talk”. These rituals elicit “cherishing” behaviour and cement bonding behaviour. Chapter 3 (pp. 357-362) – Physiological Mechanisms ofArousal ➢ Theory and Research  To explain motivation in terms of arousal mechanism in the nervous system. ➢ Earliest formulations of arousal began with the James-Lange (1894) theory of emotion.  Theory states that emotion follows changes in bodily response which follows the perception of an emotion arousing stimulus: S---------Bodily Rs ----------------Emotion ---------Acton (flight or fight).  Bodily changes occur and then emotions come into play.  Example: I see the bear, bodily changes and responses due to stimulus, then become frightened and then you act.  It is the bodily Rs that are fed-back to the brain that indicate a changed state (arousal- emotion). Perception of changed state leads to experience of emotion and resulting action. ➢ Cannon-Based Emergency Theory of emotion (1929)  Emotions result from the activation of the thalamus by external sensory information from the environment. This sensory information is relayed to the cortex. The cortex then releases this thalamus to trigger emotional Rs.  Cortex has facilitating and inhibiting influence – initiates measured response by releasing thalamus to contain emotional experience (emotional regulation and control).  S---------ThalamicActivation---------------CorticalActivati
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