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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Conditioning, Learning, and Motivation

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York University
PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

Chapter 5: Drive Theory and Motivational Psychology 1) Sheffield et al. research showed: organisms will learn a response to obtain sweet-tasting liquid having no caloric value, and thus no drive is reduced. Yet, organisms learn the response to obtain the liquid (challenge the drive hypothesis by introducing a drive induction hypothesis) a. The liquid is exciting and pleasant (organism will learn a response that brings pleasure) 2) Thus Sheffield concluded that no need or drive must be reduced in order for reinforced learning to take place. What is the reinforcement if no drive is reduced? DRTRF (drive-reduction theory of reinforcement) 3) According to Sheffield, any response that leads to an increase in motivation (stimuli) is reinforced. DITRF (Drive- induction theory of reinforcement). 1. For Hull Learning requires drive reduction. However, Sheffield showed that learning can occur without reduction in drive. The organism becomes conditioned to cues associated with the consummatory response, and in the absence of drive reduction, there is drive induction (the activation of behaviour by external cues). a. (P.144 – Model of Hull’s Drive Reduction of Motivation) b. Needs activates drive, drive energizes general activity (Warden’s research) c. Drive activates drive stimuli (Sds) which are steering mechanisms which directs previous habits d. Sds = discriminative stimuli that are associated to particular needs, help us determine whether we are hungry or thirsty (we depend internal physiological cues associated with diff need states that inform us) e. Drive establishes new learning f. Drive activates previous habits g. Reinforcement (consequences) comes in play after the performance of the response Chapter 6: Conditioning, Learning, and Motivation - Thorndike  Pavlov  Watson  Skinner 1. Learning: several types of learning influence the development of motives. Motivated behaviours are acquired or directed by learning. a. Pavlovian or respondent conditioning: a procedure whereby formerly neutral stimuli gain control over behaviour. Through a pairing procedure of CS (tone) and UCS (food), the CS motivates the organism to respond in a manner similar to the way it responds to the UCS. Thus, the CS motivates the organism to respond, where previous to conditioning the CS had no effect on the organism’s behaviour 1) The motivating properties of CS are acquired by association (contiguity) with the UCS 2) Previously neutral stimuli acquire motivational and emotional properties (have power to activate approach if stimuli is positive, or avoidance if stimuli is negative) 3) The association that is established between the CS and UCS is called a stimulus-stimulus association (S-S association) a. Neutral stimulus  no response b. Unconditioned stimulus  UCR c. Pairing: NS and UCS  yes, response NS (alone)  yes, response CS (NS becomes CS)  CR d. CS activates the UCS process which is connected to a response: CS  UCS  Response e. The UCS process mediates the resultant CR f. Respondents = reflexes (salivation, dilation) i. Behaviours are elicited by stimuli ii. Pavlov: how stimuli gain control over behaviour iii. Thorndike/Skinner: how consequences of behaviour comes to modify future actions 4) Experimental neurosis: difficult discrimination training led to loss of previously established CRs and the inability to acquire new ones. Difficult conditioning tasks become aversive and lead to disruption in overall “personality” of the animal – hence, experimental neurosis a. Neurosis is a physiological response that is mediated from autonomic nervous system 2. Classical conditioning is associated with the acquisition of motivational states. Watson & Rayner’s study of Little Albert revealed that a 9-11 month old child could form a conditioned emotional reaction to previously neutral stimuli. As Woodworth pointed out: the drive state has direction leading to approach, and in Little Albert’s case, avoidance of previously neutral stimuli. a. Frighten to any associative stimuli (objects that have relation to the originally feared object) b. Little Albert developed stimulus generalization (any stimuli similar to the CS also evoke emotional reaction) c. Attended more intensely to the original CS, but less so to other associative stimuli similar to it d. CER = conditioned emotional reaction 3. Motivated behaviours may be eliminated through conditioning a. Counterconditioning: Rachlin showed that pairing the aversive CS (learned to fear) with a strongly positive UCS (candy) leads the CS to elicit new, positive responses. i. Aversive CS is no longer aversive, it has become a positive stimulus ii. Negative CS paired with positive UCS (food)  positive response from UCS generalizes to CS (no longer feared, something that is tolerated) b. Systematic desensitization: Wolpe showed that by learning a relaxation response, this positive response may be attached to stimuli which previously elicited negative CRs (P. 162-163) i. Replace a negative emotional reaction with a more positive relaxed emotional reaction ii. Becoming accustomed to a more fearing stimuli (through visualizing or imagining) c. Interoceptive conditioning: the CS, UCS, or both may be applied to internal organs. i. 1) Intero-exteroceptive conditioning: the CS is applied internally (cool water to stomach) and the application of the UCS (food) is applied externally. Thus UCS (food) elicits salivation, and after pairings of CS and UCS, the CS (internally applied water) leads to salivary response, a CR, in the absence of the UCS. 1. Cool water to stomach gives rise to a conditioned response of salivation 2. CS presented internally; UCS presented externally ii. 2) Extero-interoceptive conditioning: patients with urinary problems have an inflatable balloon inserted in the bladder (UCS). If you inflate the balloon, person will get the sensation of urination. The CS is a dial with readings indicating how much air is inflated into the balloon causing bladder distension. The feeling of urination is the response that occurs to a bladder being distended. After several pairings of dial readings (CS) with balloon inflation (UCS), the sight of dial reading alone (CS) without the UCS was enough to lead to report of feeling to urinate. 1. Many of our internal responses are conditioned to external stimuli 2. Feeling of urination (internal) conditioned to a stimulus that is external (dial reading) 3. Ex: those who eat at a particular time (elicits hunger pangs) 4. Respond to external stimuli which is capable of being attached to internal biological process d. Implications of interoceptive conditioning: i. Unaware that such conditioning is taking place. Some of our behaviour is unconsciously acquired and expressed
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