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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Cognitive Motivation and Control Selected Concepts

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

- Final exam includes = p. 238-244 - Chapter 13, not responsible for 367-376 Chapter 11: Cognitive Motivation: Attribution Theory - Assigning cause to an event to predict future behaviour - Learned helplessness = nothing organism can do to control the event, so it becomes passive and not act o Individual tries and tries and does not succeed – has no control - Some assumed the role of guards or role of prisoners o Once assigned, individuals identified with the role and act as if its natural o Prisoners have no control of the situation, began to accept reluctantly how they are treated - Ivar lovaas = released from clinic and put into special homes (operant conditioning procedure did not carry forward, individuals begin to regress) - We identify with pro-social and anti-social behaviour 1. Attribution and learned helplessness: Seligman studied the attributions people make when they discover their behaviour is ineffective. a. The “old model” assumed that depression is related to a noncontingent relationship (not dependent) between behaviour and outcome. People become helpless when they believe that they have no control over what happens to them. Further, Abramson argues that people attribute their own lack of control to external or internal factors. Depressed individuals tend to attribute their lack of control to personal characteristics and this leads to emotional outcomes of low worth. Further, they tend to attribute their failure to global (I can’t do anything) rather than specific (I just can’t do that) attributions. They come to believe with these global attributions that nothing they can do can make a difference. Finally, a combination of global and stable attributions (e.g., it’s my lack of ability, skill, intelligence, etc.) lead depressed individuals into chronic states of helplessness. When attributions are internal (personal), stable (with unchanging characteristics), and global (nothing I or anyone can change situation) depression is accompanied by self-blame, lower self- esteem, and chronic states of helplessness. i. Unconditional negative regard = “can’t do anything right” ii. Attribution style of depressed is global, stable, internal attributions iii. Too little change / too much control = individual will feel oppressed iv. Rapid social change (boom and bust) = individual becomes separated from traditions/standards v. 1) Fatalistic suicide = there’s no change vi. 2) Altruistic suicide = do it for the good of the group vii. 3) Anomic suicide = too much rapid change viii. 4) Egoistic suicide = low solidarity, individual feels alone (not a member of anything) Cognitive Model of Depression - In addition to a cognitive attributional style that is global, stable, and internal. Depressed mood is the result of negative thinking, characterized by automatic thoughts which intrude themselves on the depressed person o Automatic thoughts = castigating voice (you are not good enough) Faulty reasoning takes the following forms: 1. Arbitrary inference: interpreting events in a negative way without considering alternative explanations. E.g., so and so didn’t call me so that proves they don’t care 2. Dichotomous thinking: events seen in black and white terms. E.g., I made one mistake and I’m a failure 3. Minimization and maximization: negative events are exaggerated and successes are diminished in importance. E.g., so I achieved a good grade but I made silly mistakes and that really upsets me 4. Over-generalization: one negative event comes to represent the whole. E.g., I was refused the job so I must really be unsuitable for anything I apply for 5. Personalization: adverse experiences are interpreted self-referentially. E.g., today is the picnic and it’s raining and I always have my good times spoiled 6. Selective abstraction: taking facts out of context. E.g., so and so went out tonight and obviously doesn’t want to spend time with me (even though so and so spends every other night with the person) Final exam review: - Striving forces: pleasure, control, meaning, well-being, neural, positive Chapter 12: Cognitive Motivation and Control Selected Concepts 1. a. Rogers and the fully functioning person (clinical psychologist) o Characteristics of therapeutic change:
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