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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - What is Motivation

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

Chapter 1: Motivation What is it? 1. Motivation is a concept: it is used to describe a. Forces that initiate and direct behaviour b. To explain differences in intensity of behaviour (more intense the B (the behaviour) the more motivation) i. The person behaving intensely, they are probably motivated ii. Motivation might be fear, or the motivation might be approaching the goal iii. Intensity varies, so motivation varies c. To understand direction of behaviour i. Behaviour is goal directed, not random/endless d. To explain why behaviour occurs in one situation and not in others i. Motivation varies in different situations e. Increases ability to predict behaviour i. Observe the behaviour, then Infer the underlying motive ii. Ex: we see person eating, infer the person is hungry 2. Measure of motivation: never measure directly but inferred on basis of what organism does following some manipulation a. Manipulate some stimulus condition and observe resulting behaviour (p. 17) i. Stimulus (withhold food) response (speed of running) ii. Deprivation increases, increases the need, increases drive/motivation, organism will run fast iii. If go beyond a point in deprivation, organism is too weak (prediction isnt fulfilled) iv. Stimulus IV response (intervening variable) response v. Hunger deprivation hunger motivation faster run vi. Intervening variable is inferred on the basis of what we do in S and what we observe in R 1. hypothetical internal state used to explain relationships between observed variables vii. Moderator variable = the higher the reading level, the higher the performance 1. Moderators influencing the performance (correlation isnt causal) 2. Qualitative (e.g., sex, race, class) or quantitative (e.g., level of reward) variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between X and Y b. Deprive organism of food and observe food-getting behaviour c. Measure hours without food (stimulus deprivation) and measure speed of running (response) from start box to goal box in a maze d. Motivation is change in behaviour that occurs following deprivation. It is inferred from behaviour before and after deprivation e. Motivation is an intervening variable: it comes between the stimulus and the response f. Motivations serves to link the stimulus variable (deprivation) and the response variable (speed of running) trying to establish a link between dependent and independent variable i. Manipulate independent variable, observe changes in dependent/response variable g. See figure 2.2 on page 17 h. Motivation is a performance variable: when enough exists, behaviour is performed i. Motivation processes are analyzed in terms of its evidence in performance (behaviour) processes j. Ex: withhold food (deprivation), predict the longer the deprivation of without food, the more the need comes into play, need comes into drive, animal starts to act k. Following consuming food/drink, animal comes down (no longer in the state of deprivation/need/driven by hunger motivation) l. Typical pattern: deprivation drive action consuming goal satisfy goal reduces drive becomes inactive m. Return to point of equilibrium/homeostasis n. Organism in the state of conflict, animal is in cognitive dissonance i. Conflict between what I believe and what I doii. Ex: smoking and believing health is important iii. Return to homeostasis psychologically: smoking isnt too bad for health if have few iv. Lots of dissonance, we are motivated to take action physically/psychologically v. Dissonance is a psychological drive that motivates the organism to resolve to dissonance vi. Incomplete gestalt 1. Gestalt = German word, refers to perception that is whole/complete 2. We dont tolerate ambiguity, we want to complete gestalt, so we complete it 3. Philosophical roots of motivational psychology: historical background of motivation (p.28) a. Motivation is a blend of philosophical and physiological concepts b. Aristotle: ideas that soul is free and mind at birth is blank. If soul is free then we have choice (indeterminism). Motivational psychology has chosen to see soul as determined by inner and outer forces. Some condition must exist before behaviour is motivated to occur. Some antecedent condition that leads to responding i. Distinguish human from other life = we have a soul/spirit, mind c. Mind as a blank slate: Aristotles position that there are no prefigured ideas prior to experience has influenced psychology in terms of learning theory. Thus, behaviour (knowledge) is derived from sense experience and thus experience or nurture is the major force underlying behaviour. Heredity may provide some ready-made behaviours reflex and instinctual patterns but it is experience, training, conditioning that provides all else i. By John Locke tabula rasa ii. Through sense experience, we take in physical world, convert it in psychological representation iii. Difference experiences = difference understanding iv. LAD = language acquisition device at 3-5 age by Noam Chomsky shows explosion of language development d. Descartes (1500s) dualistic theory of human nature: human behaviour is partly free (partly the result of rational soul acting) and partly determined (partly the result of automatic non-rational processes of bod
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