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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Drive Theory and Motivational Psychology

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

Chapter 5: Drive Theory and Motivational Psychology 1. Concept of drive: introduced originally by Freud and Woodworth in early 1900s and replaced concept of instinct. Drive refers to an energized state arising out of need that propels organisms toward a goal that satisfies the need and reduces the drive. - There was no consensus of the definition of instinct - Nominal fallacy: nearly labeling a behaviour doesn’t explain the condition/causes a. Drive: arises out of specific need b. Drive is channeled into general increase in behaviour that brings organism into contact with objects that may satisfy need i. Burnout = a drive pattern leads to drive depletion c. Drive induces responses that reduce need and drive i. Drive reduction theory of reinforcement = any behaviour satisfies the need is reinforced ii. Reinforced behaviour = more preferred because it is successful, it strengthens the response iii. Reward reinforces the behaviour d. Responses that lead to drive reduction are learned modes of conduct 2. Earlier formulations: Freud in early 1900s used drive concept (Trieb) as a moving force; as energy that arouses organism and initiates behaviour a. Drive as psychic energy that accumulates in the personality structure of the id. Pressure builds and requires release (Id presses the ego into action, through action we release the energy that is built so we retrieve to a level of homeostasis) b. Psychic energy builds when a need exists; when bodily functions change so does the energy c. Why this reduction in energy? Energy beyond a certain point is unpleasant since organism governed by “principle of constancy”. Reduce excessive excitation in nervous system and this is pleasurable (sense of relieve). Increase in excitation is unpleasurable. 3. Freud said moving force (drive) has 4 characteristics: a. Pressure: strength of force and stronger force the more motivated b. Aim: of moving force is satisfaction c. Object: of moving force may be internal/external to individual. Object may change in course of life but moving force remains the same. Fixation of an object or restricted range of objects may occur. d. Sources: of moving force is the need (bodily deficit from which too much excitation – hunger, thirst, fatigue, etc., arises) (P. 135-6 figure 5.1) e. Freud’s Model: Need – Psychic Energy (drive) – Behaviour – Goal – Satisfaction through need reduction f. Example: i. Source: need for water ii. Pressure: strength of need great due to 36 hours water deprivation iii. Aim: pleasure through need reduction iv. Object: water that can provide need reduction. Objects provide need reduction may change throughout life and vary 4. 2 classes of moving forces: life and death. Life force: psychic energy that powers it is Eros. Life force consists of reproductive, sexual and life affirming functions. Libido is nature of sexual force. Before puberty libido is separated into different stages (psycho-sexual stages) representing different zones of body. At puberty and after, the separate stages are fused into one: Genital & libido shifts (shift from autonomous to social interaction) to interactions that reproduce and affirm life. Yet, trauma may lead to displacement of libido onto inappropriate objects and fixation at earlier immature stages of psycho-sexual development. Death force: psychic energy that powers it is called Thanatos. Here the drive is to reduce energy to zero. Aggressive behaviour is an indication of death force and is a compromise between life and death forces locked in perpetual conflict. 5. Criticisms of Freud’s theory: a. Theory is empirically weak; relies on clinical evidence and interpretation; i. It is more qualitative than quantitative/experimental ii. In an experiment, we try to avoid experimenter’s bias iii. Double-blind experiment: both subject and researcher wouldn’t know iv. Control groups: a group isn’t given any independent variable b. Theory makes for a number of possible interpretations of same phenomenon; c. Theory cannot predict behaviour – theory explains behaviour after the fact and cannot predict behaviour 6. Drive revisited: a. Drive is motivational construct associated with concept of homeostasis: when there is imbalance organism is motivated to take action to correct imbalance. Drive is seen as tied to bodily needs. b. Drive concept also necessary because some needs exist without activating drive, and some drives exist even though no need exists in the sense that the absence of fulfillment is life threatening c. Finally, all drives energize behaviour – the presence of a drive causes the organism to do something, and behaviours that reduce needs reduce the drive (organism becomes inactive) 7. Drive revived: a. Drive replaced instinct approaches to motivation b. Drive, like instinct concept, is biologically based c. Drive, unlike instinct concept, had identifiable physiological basis. d. Cannon: hunger drive results from peripheral cues (hunger pangs), and thirst drive results from dry mouth. However, researchers showed that removal of stomach and organism is still hungry, and let organism drink and have water removed and organism still thirsty. Thus, the search for central determinants of drive, such as the role of the hypothalamus and other brain structures in biological motivation e. Richter’s work showed that there is a correlation between drive and activity. Working with sex hormones he showed a predictable relationship between estrus cycle (controlled by hormones) and increased activity levels. This relationship held for hunger and thirst as well. Operating from an evolutionary perspective, Richter hypothesized that organisms that became more active in a drive state would more likely survive than those who remained inactive. i. Manipulating drive and behaviour to quantify motivation f. Warden’s work: examine different drive states and make comparisons between the different motivational states (p. 136, 139) i. Warden used obstruction box: crossing a electrified grid floor to measure strength of drive states, such as hunger, thirst, exploration, sex, maternal behavioural motives were established through deprivation and as deprivation becomes more severe the number of grid crossings increases up to a point beyond which the crossings begin to become fewer even though deprivation time is lengthened (Figure 5.2 p. 139). Thus, the independent variable is length of deprivation to establish the motive state, and the dependent (behavioural) variable is number of grid crossings as a function of deprivation. 1. If increase electricity, pain is more salient, animal is in conflict between hungry and pain, animal will endorse pain to satisfy hunger. But if pain exceeds a certain level, animal will refuse to cross the gri
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