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Lecture

Chapter 11 Human Development.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2510
Professor
Agnieszka Kopinska
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 11: Human Development Monday, January 16, 12:01 PM Human Development - The seasons of our lives - Development -- biological, behavioral, and emotional changes experienced as a person ages ○ Prenatal period ○ Childhood (birth-12)  Infancy  Early childhood  Late childhood ○ Adolescence (12-20) ○ Adulthood (20+) Spring: Prenatal Development - Zygote-- fertilized egg - Germinal stage ○ Weeks 1-2 ○ Fast growth ○ Implantation in uterus ○ Placenta forms - Embryonic stage ○ Week 2 - month 2 ○ Organs form ○ Very vulnerable stage - Fetal stage ○ Month 3 - birth ○ Organs mature ○ Age of viability  Week 22 (on average) ○ Brain & body maturation Maternal influences on development - Maternal factors ○ Nutrition ○ Substances & medication ○ Infections Other environmental factors - Other teratogens ○ Environmental chemicals ○ Radiation Spring (Continued): Childhood - Motor development Top of body first (cephalocaudal trend) ○ Top of body first (cephalocaudal trend) ○ Torso to extremities (Proximodistal trend) ○ Developmental milestones are good indicators of normative development ○ Nature and nurture both contribute to the rate of motor development Temperament - Analogous to adult personality - Hereditary basis; very stable over time - Child's temperament ↔ Parent's behavior ○ Easy ○ Difficult ○ Slow to warm up (inhibited) Attachment - Strong emotional bond between infants and their caregivers - Template for interactions in future meaningful relationships - Bowlby-- attachment has an evolutionary basis Attachment styles - Ainsworth's attachment styles ○ Secure ○ Insecure: Avoidant, anxious-ambivalent, disorganized-disoriented - Strange situation ○ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zWsylVVvDdw&feature=related Personality development - Freud-- Personality is set by age 5 - Erikson's life-span perspective ○ Stage 1: Trust vs. mistrust ○ Stage 2: Autonomy vs. shame/doubt ○ Stage 3: Initiative vs. guilt ○ Stage 4: Industry vs. inferiority - Erikson's theory is useful ○ Continuity and transition - Some criticisms ○ There is not a single "ideal" personality profile ○ What about individual differences? Cognitive development - Piaget's theory - Assimilation and accommodation ○ Adaptation and learning - Piaget's Stage Theory - Piaget's Stage Theory ○ Stage 1: Sensorimotor period-- symbolism & object permanence (birth - age 2) ○ Stage 2: Preoperational period-- centration, irreversibility, egocentrism (age 2 -7) ○ Stage 3: Concrete operational period (age 7-11) ○ Stage 4: Formal operational period (age 11+) - Videos: ○ Stage 2-- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=whT6w2jrWbA&feature=related ○ Stage 3-- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA04ew6Oi9M&feature=related ○ Stage 4-- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjJdcXA1KH8&feature=related - Stage 2, Centration ○ Focus on only one aspect of the problem - Irreversibility ○ Can't reverse the process in their mind - Egocentrism ○ Can't adopt a point of view other than their own, can't imagine other people's perspectives - Piaget founded the cognitivedevelopment field ○ Viewed children as active agents - Inspired neo-piagetians ○ Added info-processing concepts to theory - Criticisms ○ Development is more continuous ○ Underestimated children's cognitivedevelop
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