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Chapter 7 Memory.pdf

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York University
PSYC 2510
Agnieszka Kopinska

Chapter 7: Memory Monday, November 14, 20112:14 PM - Ways to improve encoding ○ Elaboration-- linking to other info ○ Visual imagery-- creating images  Dual-coding theory-- memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes ○ Self-referent encoding-- links to personal life Storage - Storage (Atkinson & Shiffrin) - Sensory memory-- preserves info in raw form for fractions of a second - Automatic response - Info is forgotten or moves into short-term storage - Short-term memory (STM) ○ Limited capacity store of unrehearsed info (~20 seconds) ○ Rehearsal-- repeating the info verbally or mentally multiple times  Maintenance  Elaborative ○ Info is lost because of decay and interference ○ 7 +- 2 items capacity  Chunking can help maximize capacity □ CB-CB-BM-CS-IR-CM-PI □ CBC-BBM-CSI-RCMP-I ○ Working memory (Baddeley's model)  Disputed whether or not part of STM  A temporary store in which info from STM is manipulated mentally  Plays a role in complex cognitive processes - Long-term Memory (LTM) ○ Unlimited capacity store ○ Limited evidence that storage may be permanent  Penfield's electrical brain stimulation study  Flashbulb memories ○ Some theorists question the distinction between STM and LTM Organizationof info into memory - Clustering-- tendency to remember similar or related items in groups - Conceptual hierarchy-- classification system based on common properties among items - Schema-- conceptual framework developed based on experience - Schema-- conceptual framework developed based on experience - Semantic networks and spreading activation ○ Related concepts are linked in memory - Parallel distribution processes (PDP)/connectionist models ○ Specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in connectionist networks Retrieval - We use cues to retrieve information from memory ○ Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon - Reinstating the context of an event ○ Encoding specificity principle ○ Criminal investigations - Evidence of state- and mood-dependent effects on recall - Memory is reconstructive ○ Reconstruction influenced by schemas - Implications for eyewitness testimony (misinformation effect) ○ Memories can be distorted following the presentation of inaccurate information The fallibility of eyewitness accounts - Hindsight bias - Reconstructive nature of memory - Jurors give eyewitness testimony a lot of weight in decisions - Many factors reduce the reliability of eyewitness identifications Forgetting - We do not remember everything - Adaptive process - Problems in encoding, storage, and retrieval result in forgetting - Ebbinghaus's forgetting curve ○ Most forgetting happens shortly after learning something ○ ○ Other research shows that forgetting happens more gradually when material is meaningful Measures of forgetting - Recall-- reproducing info without any cues - Recognition-- select previously learned i
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