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Lecture

Chapter 12 Personality.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2510
Professor
Agnieszka Kopinska
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 12: Personality Wednesday, January 25, 1:30 PM Personality - House-Tree-Person test (Buck, 1968) - Projective personality test - Clinical utility ○ What does it suggest about you? (take it with a grain of salt) - Some limitations Diverse theories of personality - Psychodynamic - Behavioral - Humanistic/Person-centered - Biological - Modern ○ Narrower focus Important concepts - Personality involves ○ Stable behavioral traits (Consistency) ○ Unique to each individual (Distinctiveness) - Trait ○ Habitual pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior ○ E.g., volatile, timid, cheerful The "Big Five" (McCrae & Costa) - Five basic traits underlie the expression of more superficial traits ○ Openness to experience ○ Conscientiousness (constraint) ○ Extroversion (+ emotionality) ○ Agreeableness ○ Neuroticism (- emotionality) - Some criticisms Psychodynamictheories - Psychoanalytic theory-- Personality is shaped by ○ Early childhood experiences ○ Unconscious motives and conflicts ○ Coping/defense mechanisms Structure of personality - Components ○ Id ○ Ego ○ Superego - Levels of consciousness: - Levels of consciousness: ○ Conscious ○ Preconscious ○ Unconscious Internal conflicts - The 3 components have different goals, which creates internal conflicts ○ Commonly about sexual or aggressive impulses - Conflicts can cause anxiety/discomfort ○ Defense mechanisms used to cope with anxiety Defense mechanisms - Denial - Repression - Projection - Displacement - Reaction formation - Regression - Rationalization - Identification Personality development - Psychosexual stages ○ Developmental periods with specific urges for physical pleasure that shape adult personality:  Oral (0-1) -- weaning off bottle/breast  Anal (2-3) -- toilet training  Phallic (3-6) -- cope with oedipal complex  Latency (6-12) -- socialize  Genital (puberty+) -- intimate relationships ○ Fixation-- failure to transition into the next stage Jung's Analytical psychology - Shared Freud's belief in importance of dream analysis, and notion of personal unconscious - Collectiveunconscious ○ Archetypes and symbols Adler's Individual psychology - Humans seek superiority: ○ To better themselves, adapt, overcome challenges - Compensation - Inferiority complex ○ Pervasive, exaggerated feelings of inadequacy - Overcompensation Behavioral theories - Personality is the product of learning - No internal structure because not observable - Skinner - Skinner ○ Personality traits are response tendencies shaped by operant conditioningprinciples  Punishment and reinforcement  Automatic,unconscious processes  Life-long process - Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory ○ Learning shapes personality BUT ○ People are not passive (involves cognition) ○ Reciprocal determinism  Environment ↔ personality ○ Observational learning ○ Self-efficacy - Mischel's Person-Situation Theory ○ Behavior depends on the situation at hand; not perfectly consistent ○ Criticisms ○ Personality interacts with situational context to predict behavior Humanisticperspective - Response to "dehumanizing" psychodynamic and behaviorist movements - Humanism emphasizes human attributes - Rogers' Person-Centered Theory ○ Self-concept  How you view yourself and your abilities  Subjective focus
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