Class Notes (806,428)
Canada (492,246)
York University (33,488)
Psychology (4,069)
PSYC 2510 (86)

Chapter 6 Learning.pdf

4 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 2510
Agnieszka Kopinska

Chapter 6: Learning Monday, November 07, 201112:11 PM Learning - Learning-- evidenced by an enduring change in behavior resulting from prior experience specifically related to that behavior - Central concept in psychology - Not every change in behavior is evidence of learning ○ Motivation ○ Stimulus conditions ○ Fatigue ○ Growth/maturation ○ Evolution - Learning can sometimes be behaviorally silent ○ It is only evident in certain circumstances - Therefore, learning involves a change inpotential for doing something Classical(Pavlovian) Conditioning - Conditioning-- involves learning associations between events or stimuli - Classical conditioning (CC)-- a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response it did not elicit before - Ivan Pavlov ○ Russian psychologist ○ Studied digestion with dogs ○ Discovered CC accidentally through his research  "Psychic reflexes" - 1. Before Conditioning ○ Unconditioned stimulus --> unconditioned response - 2. Before Conditioning ○ Neutral stimulus --> no conditioned response - 3. During Conditioning ○ Bell + food --> unconditioned response - 4. After Conditioning ○ Conditioned stimulus --> conditioned response - Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) produced as unconditioned response (UCR) - Conditioned stimulus (CS) produces a conditioned response (CR) - The UCR and CR are often, but not always, the same behavior - Classical conditioning is regularly exploited by advertisers - Also at the root of some phobias - CC can also shape physiological processes ○ E.g., immune functioning, allergic reactions, sexual arousal - Tolerance to substances is caused, in part, by CC - Compensatory CRs are physiological responses that protect the body from substances' harmful effects ○ Reduce pleasurable effects of substances - CRs may not occur in unfamiliar setting (absence of CS situational cues) ○ Can result in overdose ○ Cravings and withdrawal symptoms - Cue exposure treatments - Cue exposure treatments - Principles of CC ○ Acquisition ○ Extinction ○ Spontaneous recovery ○ Stimulus generalization ○ Stimulus discrimination - Example of stimulus discrimination ○ The mouse discriminates between techno and classical music - Higher-order (or second-order) conditioning ○ Suggests that CC does not depend on the presence of a natural UCS (a CS will be sufficient) Operant Conditioning - Behaviorist principle coined by B.F. Skinner - Outcome of response shapes future behavior - Thorndike's Law of Effect-- when a stimulus in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association is strengthened ○ Cat in the puzzle box experiment - Skinner and reinforcement ○ Built on Thorndike's Law of Effect ○ Reinforcement take place when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response - Important terms ○ Operant chambers/Skinner Box-- box in which animal subjects can emit a response and the consequence of that response is carefully controlled ○ Reinforcement contingencies-- rules that determine whether a response will be reinforced ○ Response rate is typical DV in operant conditioning  Cumulative recorder ○ Shaping-- reinforcing closer and closer forms of the desired response - Processes in operant conditioning ○ Acquisition and shaping ○ Extinction  Resistance to extinction ○ Stimulus generalization and discrimination ○ Some overlap with principles of CC - Reinforcement is subjective - Defined in terms of its effects on behavior - Primary vs. secondary reinforcers ○ Inherently reinforcing vs
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2510

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.