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Psychology - Development.docx

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York University
PSYC 2510
Richard N Lalonde

January 16, 2013 Psychology – Lecture 14 Developmental Psychology Culture & Co-sleeping  Universal o Incest avoidance (Where did boy go?)  American culture o Sacred couple o Autonomy ideal  Indian culture o Protection of vulnerable (Where did the baby go?) o Female chastity anxiety (Where did the girls go?) Developmental Psychology  Physiological, cognitive, emotional & social changes across the lifespan  Socialization – process by which children learn behaviours that are expected of them Developmental methods  Cross-sectional designs: different age based groups of participants studied at the same time o Problem of cohort effect (culture of a generation)  Longitudinal designs: same group of participants studied at different points in time o Problems: expense, attribution, etc o Documentary – Seven Up Series (Tony) Stage Theories of Development  Stage theories o Stages in order o Stages related to age o Major shifts in development  Example – Erik Erikson (1963) o 8 stages personality across lifespan o Psychosocial crises – opposing polarities in personality Prenatal physical development Maturation: sequential unfolding of genetically influenced behaviour & physical attributes  Germinal stage – fertilized egg (zygote) attaches to uterine wall  Embryonic stage (2-8 wks) – development of organs & limbs; testosterone secreted♂in  Fetal stage – nervous system development & brain weight Environmental influences Teratogens – Harmful influences that cross placental barrier  Social drugs – alcohol (FAS), cigarettes, cocaine, etc.  Medications – eg. thalidomide  Diseases – eg. AIDS, herpes, measles  Environmental agents – eg. lead, mercury  Effects depend on timing (stage) of influence Prenatal development – Research Exposure to Dr. Seuss (DeCasper & Spence, ‘86)  IV. EXP GRP: Cat in the Hat read daily during last 6 wks of pregnancy CONTROL GRP: Moms who do not read  DV. Baby hears speech sounds at 2 days (Seuss-other) o Cond. To change pattern of sucking to receive desired stim.  Results: EXP GRP change sucking pattern for Seuss (infer preference) CONTROL: no preference Testing early development  Physical: Apgar test – colour, respiration, heart rate, muscle tone & reflexes (eg. sucking, Babinski, grasping, stepping)  Social: Synchrony – babies exchange nonverbal signals with others in a rhythmic patter o Still Face Experiment: Tronick Early physical development  Cephalocaudal trend: head to foot  Proximodistal trend: centre-outward  Maturational norms: o Developmental norms: median age o Cultural variations Early emotional development – Attachment  Deep emotional bond that infant develops with primary caregiver  Contact Comfort o Harlow study o Primates – innate pleasure from close physical contact; basis of the first attachment  Separation anxiety (humans) (6-8 months) Separation Anxiety  Strange Situation Test (Ainsworth) o Parent-infant “separation & reunion” procedure in lab at 12-18 months  Secure Attachment (67%) o Secure when parent present, distressed by separation, & delighted by reunion  Insecure Attachment: o Clings to parent, cries at separation & anger at reunion (anxious/ambivalent) o General apathy (avoidant) o Disorganized-disoriented N.B. Cultural differences – eg. Little avoidant attachment in Japan Potential reasons for insecure attachment:  Abusive, neglectful or erratic parenting  Stressful family circumstances (death of a parent)  Child’s temperament  Daycare is not a significant predictor of insecure attachment Early personality – Temperament  Physiological disposition to respond to environment in certain ways: innate o Reactivity o Soothability o Positive & negative emotionality  Relatively stable over time Categories of child temperament (Thomas & Chess)  Easy temperament (good mood, flexible, regular): 40%  Difficult temperament (active, inflexible, and irritable): 10%  Slow-to-warm-up (quiet, moody, passive resistance to change): 15% Stability of temperament (Kagan)  Inhibited (15-20%) vs. uninhibited (25-30%)  Responses to novel stimuli (visual, auditory & olfactory) at 16 weeks o Inhibited – agitated o Uninhibited – relaxed  Evidence of stability until early adulthood  Different amygaldar responses to novelty Cognitive Development  Piaget: Cognitive development = mental adaptations to new experiences  Adaptation – two forms o Assimilation – new info into existing cognitive schemas (males into Daddy schema) o Accommodation – modifying existing schemas (doggy) in response to new info (kitty) Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development  Sensorimotor  Preoperational  Concrete Operational  Formal Operational Sensorimotor Stage (Birth – 2 years)  Thinking is coordination of sensory info with body movements  Object permanence – understands that object continues to exist even when you cannot see/touch it Preoperational Stage (2 – 7 years)  Focused on limitations of children’s thinking o Cannot apply abstract/use abstract operations such as conservation (ie. physical properties do not change when forms change)  Irreversibility
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