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Psychology - Social Psychology 1.docx

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York University
PSYC 2510
Richard N Lalonde

February 27, 2013 Lecture 18 Social Psychology 1 Social Psychology: How a person’s group, situation, or relationships influence their thoughts, feelings, and behaviour. Note: Final Exam – tentative date: Tuesday April 16, 6-8:30 YH A100 & YH 204 Historical Examples of social behaviour May 18, 2001 to May 27, 2002  30 Palestinian suicide bombers kill 25 innocent Israeli bystanders  Median age of the bombers was 22  4 of the bombers were female October 25, 1944 to January 25, 1945  Japanese Kamikazes (special attack forces of the wind of the gods) responsible for 738 deaths & 1300 wounded  2198 suicide bombers during WWII  Waiting list of male volunteers; most in late teens or early twenties WHY???  Look for multiple explanations  Explanation is not justification  One level of explanation can come from social psychology – how a person’s situation, group, or relationship influence their thoughts, feelings and behaviour Behaviour in Social & Cultural Context  Norms: roles & rules  Conformity  Obedience  Deindividuation  Helping  Small group & intergroup behaviour Defining Norms and Roles  Norms o Social rules regulating behaviour o Explicit: laws o Implicit: cultural standards  Culture o Learned values, beliefs and attitudes shared by most members of a community o Micro (eg. prison) or macro (eg. Canadian) o Culture evolves  Role: Given social position governed by a set of norms Conformity – Making behaviour consistent with behaviour of others Sherif (1935) – norm development & autokinetic effect IV. Alone, small group, alone (Rept) DV. Rated movement of light (ambiguous norm) Results: Alone – variability of responses Groups – convergence to a norm Alone again – adoption of group norm WHY CONFORM? Influence of information Conformity – Asch (1951) when normative Pressure conflicts with reality  Individuals in a group of 7 asked to match line lengths  6 confederates pick wrong line Control group (no pressure): incorrect <1% Experimental group Replications of Ash  75% conform at least 1 trial (25% never) Meta-analysis – 133 studies in 17 countries  30% conform 6 or more trials Conformity has diminished since 1951 Conformity increases as: But, higher: o in collectivistic than individualistic cultures 1. Stimulus becomes more ambiguous o if majority is larger or belong to ingroup 2. # of people who disagree with S increases Decreases to 10% when 1 dissenter present o stimuli more ambiguous WHY CONFORM? Influence of norms o for women Obedience to authority The Milgram (1963) experiement Conforming to authority – Obedience  Paradigm: subject (“teacher”) told with simple commands to give shocks to “student” (confederate) in adjoining room if he answers incorrectly  No actual shocks administered Experimenter informs Ss that they are paid for coming to lab & free to leave at any time without forfeiting $ Experimenter does not remind Ss of right to leave after initial assurance People far more obedient that expected o 2/3 shocked to the full extent o Majority still shock to full extent even in exp. Variation where learner demands to stop o Replicated with women Packer (2008) – data from 8 of Milgram’s experiments – N = 320 – 150 Volts most frequent point of disobedience – 1st time learner asks for release Factors Leading to Disobedience  Experimenter left the room  Victim was in the same room  “Ordinary” man gives orders  Orders delivered over the phone  Subject with peers who refused to go on Burger (2009) replication with ABC TV BBC TV (2009) replication  Informed consent (3 times: withdrawal without penalty) Allowed to go to 450 Volts 9/12 go all the way  Stops study shortly after 150 Volt point Error when interpreting Milgram Ss often seen as unfeeling or cruel (internal attribution) o fundamental attribution error Failure to recognize powerful situational factors Burger and ABC Replication of Milgram Video  People shocked at other end; experiment pressures you to go on  2/3 of subjects willing to give the most dangerous shock
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