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PSYC 2510 (86)


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York University
PSYC 2510
Agnieszka Kopinska

MEMORY  Memory is a central component of human functioning  Allows us to learn  Allows us to remember  Our memories form our personality Memory Processes  encoding – getting information in memory  requires attention, which involves filtering out unimportant stimuli to focus on specific stimuli only  stimuli are filtered at different times  e.g. cocktail party phenomenon – sitting at a party, you filter out music, other conversations, etc. until someone says your name from the other side of the room  means that stimuli isn’t filtered out once it has been processed to have meaning to you  some flexibility in where in mental processing stimuli are filtered in or out  the aspects of stimuli we encode affect retention  shallow processing: structural encoding – you pay attention to the shape of things (e.g short vs. long)  intermediate processing: phonemic encoding – you pay attention to the sound of words (mostly related to auditory memories)  deep processing: semantic encoding – you pay attention to the meaning (e.g. paraphrasing)  levels of processing theory – deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes  what makes one level “deeper” than another?  Ways to improve encoding  Elaboration – linking to other info  Visual imagery – creating image links  Self-referent encoding – links to personal life  Dual-coding theory – memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes  storage – storing the information for later retrieval  Atkinson & Shiffrin model  sensory memory – preserves info in raw form for fractions of a second  automatic response  Information is forgotten or moves into short-term storage  Short-term memory (STM) – limited capacity of unrehearsed info (about 20 seconds)  Rehearsal – repeating the info verbally or mentally multiple times  Maintenance – just long enough to use, then it’s processed (e.g. repeating a phone number until you write it down)  Elaborative – tends to move info from short term to long term (e.g. studying every night to memorize concepts)  Info is lost because of decay and interference  Short term memory store has a capacity of 7±2 items  Chunking can help maximize capacity  E.g. CB-CB-BM-CS-IR-CM-PI vs. CBC-BBM-CSI-RCMP-I  Working memory (Baddeley’s model) – a temporary store in which info from STM is manipulated mentally; plays a role in complex cognitive processes  Long-term memory (LTM) – unlimited capacity store  Limited evidence that storage may be permanent  Panfield’s electrical brain stimulation study – electrical stimulation of certain parts of the brain could lead to suddenly remembering certain memories  Flashbulb memories – memories that patients were very confident in were not entirely accurate, may have been vivid hallucinations  Some theorists question the distinction between STM and LTM  retrieval – accessing/remembering the info  we use cues to retrieve information from memory  tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon – you know the information but the cue isn’t there so you can’t retrieve it  reinstating the context of an event  encoding specificity principle – retrieval is easier if you’re in the same environment that you first processed the information  evidence of state- and mood-dependent effects on recall  memory is reconstructive  reconstruction is influenced by schemas  misinformation effect – memories can
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