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PSYC 2510
Agnieszka Kopinska

PERSONALITY Important Concepts  Personality involves consistency and distinctiveness  Consistency – stable behavioural traits  Distinctiveness – unique to each individual  Trait – habitual pattern of thought, emotion, and behaviour  The “Big Five”  Five basic traits underlie the expression of more superficial traits  Openness to experience  Conscientiousness (constraint)  Extroversion (+ emotionality)  Agreeableness  Neuroticism (-emotionality)  Not every part of personality falls under these categories Psychodynamic  Psychoanalytic theory – personality is shaped by early childhood experiences, unconscious motives and conflicts, and coping/defense mechanisms  Developed by Freud  Mostly developed theories by psychoanalyzing himself  Controversial – most of his theories revolved around sexual urges  Structure of personality  Id – biological urges, wants to be satisfied  Ego – wants the same things, but can put the breaks on the Id  Superego – developed around the ages of 3 to 5 (when kids start to internalize beliefs of right and wrong), the polar opposite of the Id  Levels of consciousness  Consciousness – what you’re aware of at the moment  Preconscious – things that you’re aware of but not accessing at the moment  Unconscious – the biggest thing about Freud’s theories, things that we are not aware of  The 3 components have different goals, which create internal conflicts  Commonly about sexual or aggressive impulses  Can cause anxiety/discomfort  Defense mechanisms used to cope with anxiety  Denial – refusal to acknowledge that there is a problem  Repression – burying thoughts or feelings that illicit distress  Projection – your own feelings make you feel guilty but you attribute them to someone else  Displacement – you don’t feel safe, so you displace your feelings to a less threatening source  Reaction formation – feeling the opposite of how you think you’re supposed to feel  Regression – behaving immaturely, falling back on behaviours attributed to someone younger  Rationalization – making up a false excuse to justify behaviour  identification – boost your self-esteem by convincing yourself that there are similarities between you and someone you idolize  Psychosexual stages – periods with specific urges for physical pleasure that shape adult personality  Oral (0-1) – weaning off bottle/breast  Anal (2-3) – toilet training  Phallic (3-6) – cope with oedipal complex  Latency (6-12) – socialise  Genital (puberty +) – intimate relationships  Fixation – failure to transition into the next stage  Jung’s analytical psychology – shared Freud’s belief in importance of dream analysis, and notion of personal unconscious, but disagreed with the focus on sexual urges  Collective unconscious  Archetypes and symbols  Adler’s individual psychology – humans seek superiority (to better themselves, adapt, overcome challenges)  Compensation  Inferiority complex – pervasive, exaggerated feelings of inadequacy  Overcompensation Behavioural  Personality is the product of learning  No internal structure because not observable  B.F. Skinner  Personality traits are response tendencies shaped by operant conditioning principles  Punishment and reinforcement – automatic, unconscious process  Life-long  Bendura’s Social Cognitive theory – learning shapes personality but people are not passive (involves cognition)  Reciprocal determini
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