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Ch. 2 - Frequency Distributions.pdf

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PSYC 2530
Anne Russon

Ch. 2 - Frequency Distributions Wednesday, September 12, 2012 3:04 PM DescriptiveStatistics - Statistics for summarizing and organizing sample data, often for a general overview - Frequency distributions ○ How many times (frequency) each value occurred in the data set for a given sample ○ Tables and graphs FrequencyDistributionTables - X & Y columns: categories on X measurement scale (X) & their frequencies (f). ○ X column: all values listed, highest to lowest ○ f column: Tallies, # times each value for X occurs in the data set  Tallies are frequencies ○ Sum of all f = N (total # cases in data set). - Proportion (p) of each category: p = f/N - % of distribution @ X value (=p*100). %. FrequencyDistributionTables - Humorous: "If at first you don't succeed, you're probably not related to the boss" - Non-Humorous: "People related to the boss often succeed the very first time" - 16 participants, 8 humorous + 8 non-humorous sentences, # recalled Tables are nice for calculation, but are hard to visualize. FrequencyDistributionTables - Regular: all individual X values - Grouped: groups of X scores (class intervals) ○ Used when X has a wide range of values ○ Intervals must all have the same width [same size] ○ Width chosen so table has ~10 intervals (min f = 5 per interval) FrequencyDistributionGraphs - X (score) categories listed on X (horizontal) axis, f (frequencies) on Y (vertical axis). ○ Scores nominal or ordinal scale: histogram [Histogram = bar graphs, but must count "how many"/ frequency] ○ Scores interval or ration scale: either one - Histogram: bar centered over each score (or class interval). Bar height shows S/C
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