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Lecture 2

PSYC 3090 Lecture 2: LECTURE 2 - SEPTEMBER 20TH 2016

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York University
PSYC 3090
Krista Trobst

LECTURE 2 – SEPTEMBER 20 2016TH -continuous scales – theoretically possible to divide any of the values of the scale -discrete scales – categorical values -error – the collective influence of all of the factors on a test score beyond those specifically measured by the test -nominal scales – classification/categorization (DSM-5) -ordinal scales – like nominal but allow rank-ordering -interval scales – contain equal intervals between numbers -ratio scales – scales with true zero point -psychological measurement – most psychological measures are truly ordinal but are treated as interval measures for statistical purposes -distributions – set of test scores arrayed for recording or study -raw score – straightforward, unmodified accounting of performance that is usually numerical -frequency distribution – all scores are listed alongside the number of times each score occurred Measures of Central Tendency -central tendency – a statistic that indicates the average or midmost score between the extreme scores in a distribution -mean, median, mode -problem with mean: could have same mean but distribution has greater variability in scores Measures of Variability -range, quartile ranges etc -skewness -kurtosis, platykurtic, leptokurtic, mesokurtic Standard Scores -standard score – raw score that has been converted from one scale to another scale, latter scale has some arbitrarily set mean + standard deviation Meta-analysis -allows researchers to look at the relationship between variables across many separate studies -combines information across studies to produce single estimates of the data under study Of Tests & Testing Assumptions: 1. Psychological traits + states exist a. Trait – any distinguishable, relatively enduring way in which one individual varies from one another b. States – distinguish one person from another but are relatively less enduring c. Psychological traits are constru
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