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Lecture 2

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PSYC 3090 Lecture 2: LECTURE 2 - SEPTEMBER 20TH 2016
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York University

Psychology

PSYC 3090

Krista Trobst

Fall

Description

LECTURE 2 – SEPTEMBER 20 2016TH
-continuous scales – theoretically possible to divide any of the values of the scale
-discrete scales – categorical values
-error – the collective influence of all of the factors on a test score beyond those specifically
measured by the test
-nominal scales – classification/categorization (DSM-5)
-ordinal scales – like nominal but allow rank-ordering
-interval scales – contain equal intervals between numbers
-ratio scales – scales with true zero point
-psychological measurement – most psychological measures are truly ordinal but are treated as
interval measures for statistical purposes
-distributions – set of test scores arrayed for recording or study
-raw score – straightforward, unmodified accounting of performance that is usually numerical
-frequency distribution – all scores are listed alongside the number of times each score
occurred
Measures of Central Tendency
-central tendency – a statistic that indicates the average or midmost score between the
extreme scores in a distribution
-mean, median, mode
-problem with mean: could have same mean but distribution has greater variability in scores
Measures of Variability
-range, quartile ranges etc
-skewness
-kurtosis, platykurtic, leptokurtic, mesokurtic
Standard Scores
-standard score – raw score that has been converted from one scale to another scale, latter
scale has some arbitrarily set mean + standard deviation
Meta-analysis
-allows researchers to look at the relationship between variables across many separate studies
-combines information across studies to produce single estimates of the data under study
Of Tests & Testing
Assumptions:
1. Psychological traits + states exist
a. Trait – any distinguishable, relatively enduring way in which one individual varies
from one another
b. States – distinguish one person from another but are relatively less enduring
c. Psychological traits are constru

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