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October 15th History of Psychology.docx

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York University
PSYC 3125
Alexandra Rutherford

Tuesday October 15 th ALFRED BINET • Had well articulated ideas about intelligence o Thought intelligence was not something that was given through hereditary but the reason to do intelligence testing was to understand what capabilities they currently had and to help them be better at it o He felt that intelligence was multifaceted o Observed his own children, observed how they interacted with the world o Individual psychology- he came up with a set of tests that would understand the idea that intelligence was multifaceted o It has to consist of more complex thinking ability HENRY GODDARD • Believed that low intelligence was heavily linked to prostitution, delinquency o He wanted to indentify people who were feeble minded o Believed that intelligence was fixed o He believed you could read peoples faces, and some could pass as normal even though they weren’t o Tested the women who were in the correctional facilities LEWIS TERMAN • Used the test to place any on a distribution of intelligence o Worked with the test to norm it for people with high intelligence o Used a more American group o Borrowed the idea of mental age and chronological age, given a single number that will sum up an individuals intelligence o Terman was a eugenicist • If we knew your potential they could teach you accordingly o Understanding someones capabilities would help them learn in a more effective way • During the world war, psychologists used tests to detect with soldiers would be more effective and which ones should be removed because they could be of no use • The committee released a test of intelligence to 1.7 million American soldiers o Army alpha- the literate recruits o Army beta- illiterate recruits- no reading or writing o The results of the test was a massive success according to the psychologists o The army did not feel this way – majority of the tests proved the soldiers were mostly “morons” • Watson was very much an environmentalist- believed you could make someone into whoever you wanted them to be depending on the environment • Eugenicists- believed things were due to nature, traits were passed on from hereditary o These two ideas were coexisting at one point in time • Dewey believed that everyone should have an education that fit their understanding and capabilities • In 1923, an psychologists decides to write a report based on the results of the army tests o Carl Brigham o He decided to ask certain types of questions to the army data o He wanted to know if people from different types of Europe and races brought in different results o He brought about the idea of intelligence and race, reinforcing fears about the movement of genetic stock (inter breeding) causing a lot of controversy • A lot of critiques led to this data being revised o Goddard then moves away from his idea that intelligence was hereditary o The research question changed to what causes a person to become racist and what causes racism • SCIENTIFIC RACISM
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