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Lecture

PSYC 3140 Lecture Notes - Binge Eating Disorder, Body Mass Index, Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3140
Professor
Joel Goldberg

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ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
LECTURE: FEBRUARY 12TH, 2013
TOPIC: MOOD AND EATING DISORDERS
Quiz 5 and 6 will be due Feb 25th and Midterm Feb 26th
Midterm
Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9, 15
Lecture material
50 MC
1 hour
Lecture after test
Eating Disorders – Prevalence
3% of women will have an eating disorder in their lifetime
Prevalence among female athletes is even higher. 15-62% will be affected. Other women at
risk are models
Current Picture – Eating Issues
70% → women on diet
80-90% women dislike body
50% of high school girls and 20% of high school boys → diet or want to lose weight
80% of 10 yr old on diet and 50% of 9 year old on diet
Some girls report being more afraid of gaining weight than war or cancer, or losing their
parents
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A score that is calculated based on a person's weight and height. It is used to estimate body
fat
Seriously underweight → BMI under 17.5
Underweight → BMI 17.5-18.5
Normal range → BMI 18.5-24.9
Overweight → BMI 24.9.......
Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia – Physiological – decreased appetite
Nervosa – Psychological – causation
DSM-IV-TR criteria on p. 539 in textbook
Refuse to maintain body weight
Intense fear of gaining weight
Disturbance in which one's weight or shape is experienced
Under influence of weight/shape on self-evaluation or denial of seriousness of low
body weight
Absence of menstrual cycle for at least 3 cycles (this may be removed because it cannot
apply to men and because it may be a secondary or consequence of physical
complications)
You can die from this mental health problem → fatal
Subtypes
Restricting subtype → the person has not regularly engaged in binge-eating or purging

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behaviour
Binge-eating/purging type → the person has regularly engaged in binge-eating or purging
behaviour
Eats a lot then tries to throw up or takes laxatives
Bulimia Nervosa DSM-IV-TR criteria on p. 542
Recurrent episodes of binge eating
Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviour in order to prevent weight gain
The binge eating and compensatory behaviours both occur, on average, at least twice a
week for 3 months
Self -evaluation is unduly …...
Eating Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified
Meet all AN criteria, except have regular period
Meet BN criteria, except frequency of binge or compensatory behaviours is less than twice
per week or less than 3 month duration
Binge Eating Disorder
Typically overweight
Have eating binges but not the inappropriate compensatory behaviour (do not use self-
induced vomiting)
Likely will be a disorder in DSM-5 (currently in appendix)
REFER TO HANDOUT FOR PHYSICAL COMPLICATIONS OF EATING DISORDERS
Eating Disorders – Causes and Risk factors
Age – mid teens to young adulthood
Sex – more women than men
Adverse life events – abuse, trauma
Weight concerns, dieing, body dissatisfaction
Family dynamics
Personality (perfectionism, impulsivity)
Sociocultural
Example: dancers are always told to dance perfectly
Higher order eating disorders in Western culture
Study
Isolated place
No television
Sociologists studied the culture prior to television and when it was introduced
Television effects on Native culture
Results
Virtual absence of eating disorders before TV
After TV, striking increase in eating disorders
Culture putting pressure on young women to be thin
Dove Beauty Soap → spoke against thinness as the bodily ideal
Video
It is about setting an example for young girls because of all the millions of
advertisements full of naked, thin, beautiful, perfect women everywhere ! What
message are we sending our children?
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Message : talk to your daughter before the beauty companies do
Sociocultural
Higher prevalence of Eds in western cultures, where emphasis on thinness as an ideal
Media plays an important role in communicating our cultural ideals
Increased preoccupation with dissatisfaction with body and increased purging behaviour →
the study
Functional significance of Eating Disorders
Maintaining control
Deal with strong emotions
Sense of pride, accomplishment
Self-soothing
Communicating distress/anger
Safeguard against failure
Avoidance of sexuality/fears of maturity
Avoidance of memories/feelings
Get attention
Self-punishment
Case Study: Linda
34 yr old woman
Caucasian
Protestant
Divorced
2 children (13 yr old girl and 15 yr old boy)
Unemployed, on disability
College education
Resides in small town
Lives close to her sisters
They all got along
She is the oldest
The second sister had a competitive relationship with her and on one hand she
idealized her but on the other hand she competed with her and wished she could be
more like her
Trauma history –sexually and physically abused by a relative and a family friend
Relationships – only one serious partner in high school, she married him after they
graduated and started having kids right away
Husband emotionally and verbally abused her calling her fat and ugly. This brought
back memories from her childhood traumas
She started to withdraw from others – isolation
She and the husband were invited to attend a wedding – she decided she was going to
lose some weight – as she started to lose weight she started to get positive attention
from others – continued to diet and restrict her weight gain
She started to exercise to lose weight faster – up to 3 hours everyday
She felt a sense of control over her self, her life, and her body
She found it harder to stop herself from eating because she started to crave food
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