Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself, which are exhibited in a wide range of important social and personal contexts. Extreme patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviate from a person"s culture. Begin early in life and remain stable. Cause significant functional impairment and subjective distress. High rates of social & occupational impairment. Comorbid pd with another dx = lower functioning. High cost to society: criminal activity, violence, abuse, substance abuse. Official diagnoses are substantially arbitrary, often unreliable, overlapping, and incomplete and have only a limited utility for treatment planning (widiger et al. , 2002, p. 435). The assessment of personality disorder is currently inaccurate, largely unreliable, frequently wrong, and in need of improvement (tyrer et al. , 2006). Paranoid pd is a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that others" motives are interpreted as malevolent. Schizoid pd is a pattern of detachment from social relationships and restricted range of emotional expression.